Blueprints For Wood Projects

Ted's Woodworking Plans

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The Lamellar Structure

Even though this is a subject that is still somewhat controversial 1 , the structural model presented here is basically consistent with the original orthogonal plywood model proposed by Gebhart 9 , as well as the twisted plywood model proposed 10 in terms of collagen fibril orientations. Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the structure as proposed by 11 . For more details see 12 . The rotated plywood model can be described by two structural rotations. The one rotation is of 5 bundles of mineralized fibrils that are successively oriented in a plane parallel to the lamellar boundary by increments of approximately 30 degrees. Because there appear to be only 5 such bundles and not 6, the structure is asymmetric. The second rotation is of the mineralized fibrils around their fibril axes. This rotation changes the orientations of the layers of crystals within the fibril bundle. This progresses from one side of a lamella to the other. 10. Giraud-Guille, M.M. (1988) Twisted plywood...

Microfibril Angle Distribution In The Stem

The first example is the distribution of microfibril angles in the stem. For softwood species (such as spruce or pine) and to some extend also for hardwoods (such as oak), the MFA decreases in older trees from a large value in the pith (about 40 ) to very small values closer to the bark 54 , see Fig. 12. Since the stem thickens by apposition of annual rings at the exterior, the history of a tree is recorded in the succession of annual rings. Hence, the observation that the microfibril angle decreases from pith to bark indicates that younger trees are optimised for flexibility, while the stem becomes more and more optimised for bending stiffness when the tree gets older (see Fig. 12). A possible explanation for this change in strategy could be a compromise between resistance against buckling (which needs stiffness) and flexibility in bending 54 to resist fracture.

Resource Acceptability

The variety of resources and their physical and biochemical properties, including defensive mechanisms, is too great in any ecosystem for any species to exploit all possible resources. The particular physiological and behavioral adaptations of insects to obtain sufficient nutrients and avoid toxic or undigestable materials determine their feeding preferences, i.e., which resources they can or will exploit. Potential resources vary widely in nutritional value. Animal tissues have higher nutritional value than do plant tissues because of the preponderance of indigestible cellulose in plant tissues. Nutritional quality of foliage is higher than that of root tissue. Nutritional value varies between bark, sapwood and heartwood tissues (Hodges et al. 1968, Schowalter et al. 1998). In fact, exploitation of sapwood requires mutualistic interaction with fungi or bacteria, or other adaptations, to acquire sufficient nutrients from a resource that is largely indigestible cellulose (Ayres et al....

Action Antiinflammatory

A quinone, sissoidenone and dalbergion, latifolin and dalbergin have been isolated from the heartwood also oleanolic acid, liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin. The sapwood and young leaves gave sissotrin. Biochanin A, isolated from young leaves, inhibited both serum and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated growth of human prostate cancer cell lines.

Expanding Populations

Related research has reinforced the importance of host tree density for population spread of southern pine beetle and other bark beetles (Amman et al. 1988, M. Brown et al. 1987, R.G. Mitchell and Preisler 1992, Sartwell and Stevens 1975). Schowalter and Turchin (1993) demonstrated that patches of relatively dense pure pine forest are essential to growth and spread of southern pine beetle populations from experimental refuge trees (see Fig. 6.6). Experimentally established founding populations spread from initially colonized trees surrounded by dense pure pine forest but not from trees surrounded by sparse pines or pine-hardwood mixtures.

Stability of Community Variables

Diversity may dampen the spread of insects or pathogens that could threaten some species, hence disrupting community structure. For example, the diversity of pines and hardwoods in the southern United States reduces spread of southern pine beetle populations (Schowalter and Turchin 1993). Ostfeld and Keesing (2000) found that the number of human cases of Lyme disease, caused by the tick-vectored spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, declined with species richness of small mammals and lizards but increased with species richness of ground-dwelling birds (Fig. 10.10). These data indicated that disease epidemiology may depend on the diversity of reservoir hosts, but disease incidence generally should decline with increasing dilution of reservoir hosts by nonhosts.

Rain Forest Conservation

Many of the trees found in rain forests are valued for their commercial use as lumber, while others have been exploited for their fruits or other products, causing much habitat loss. Tropical hardwoods, such as teak and mahogany, for example, have long been used in construction and in furniture. Teak resists rotting and as a result is often used for products that are going to be exposed to the weather, such as garden furniture. Due to teak's desirability as lumber, timber companies are increasingly planting it in plantations for a sustainable yield rather than relying solely on natural forests as a source.

Population Fluctuation

Cyclic Population Growth

Seasonal trends in aphid biomass in an undisturbed (dotted line) and an early successional (solid line) mixed-hardwood forest in North Carolina. The early successional forest was clearcut in 1976-1977. Peak abundances in spring and fall on the undisturbed watershed reflect nutrient translocation during periods of foliage growth and senescence continued aphid population growth during the summer on the disturbed watershed reflects the continued production of foliage by regenerating plants. From Schowalter (1985). Seasonal trends in aphid biomass in an undisturbed (dotted line) and an early successional (solid line) mixed-hardwood forest in North Carolina. The early successional forest was clearcut in 1976-1977. Peak abundances in spring and fall on the undisturbed watershed reflect nutrient translocation during periods of foliage growth and senescence continued aphid population growth during the summer on the disturbed watershed reflects the continued production of foliage by...

Spermatophytes Gymnosperms

The Abietae, one of the more common families of evergreens, includes pines, cedars, and hemlocks dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. One of the most extraordinary members of the conifers was the family Taxodiaceae, which includes the genus Sequoia, represented today only by the redwood and the Sequoia gigantea, which grow in California. These species' twigs, cones, and seeds were abundant in the Lower Cretaceous of North America. Finally, the family Cupressaceae includes the junipers and is known from the Jurassic.

Dominant and Keystone Species

Some species, called dominant species, can exert powerful control over the abundance of other species because of the dominant species' large size, extended life span, or ability to monopolize energy or other resources. Communities are named according to their dominant species for example, oak-hickory forest, redwood forest, sagebrush desert, and tallgrass prairie. Some species, called keystone species, have a disproportionately large effect on community structure by preventing dominant species from monopolizing the community. Keystone species usually exert their effects through predation, while dominant species are good competitors (that is, better at obtaining and holding resources than other species).

Vascular Cambium And Cork Cambium

Pine Stem Labeled

In many conifers, the annual rings of the xylem are often fairly wide as a result of a comparatively rapid growth rate during the growing season. Resin canals are formed both vertically and horizontally throughout various tissues (Fig. 22.3). The bark includes the secondary phloem and may be relatively thick. It often becomes 7.5 centimeters (3 inches) or more wide, and in the giant redwood, it may become as much as 60 centimeters (2 feet) wide. Companion cells are absent from the phloem, but similar albuminous cells apparently perform the same function.

Structure and Form

Equisetum Stem Cross Section

About 25 species of horsetails (the name usually applied to branching forms that look a little like a horse's tail) and scouring rushes (unbranched forms) (Fig. 21.10) are scattered throughout all continents, including Australia, where they are weeds. They usually grow less than 1.3 meters (4 feet) tall, but some in the tropics and coastal redwood forests of California exceed 4.6 meters (15 feet) in height. Where branches occur,

Models of Succession

Tolerance Model Succession

Diagrammatic representation of interactions between southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, and fire in the southeastern coniferous forest. Successional transitions extend from left to right dotted arrows indicate direction of movement. Fire is a regular feature of the generally dry uplands but moves into generally moist lowlands where drought or southern pine beetle creates favorable conditions for combustion. Southern pine beetle is a regular feature of both forests but is most abundant where pines occur at high density and stress levels. Fire is necessary for regeneration of pines, especially following succession to hardwoods if fire return is delayed. Schowalter et al. (1981a) with permission from the Entomological Society of America. Diagrammatic representation of interactions between southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, and fire in the southeastern coniferous forest. Successional transitions extend from left to right dotted arrows indicate direction of movement....

Gymnosperm Leaf Secretory Cell

See NADPH (Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) Reducing reaction, 176 Reduction, 172 Redwood, 34, 424, 515 Sapwood, 94, 98 parthenocarpy, 448-49 pine, 426, 427, 432-33 propagation, 265-66 redwoods (see Redwood) seed plants (see Angiosperms redwood, 211 Source, in pressure-flow hypothesis, 165-66

Modern Gymnosperm Types

Pine trees are typically conical and represent the sporophyte generation. The leaves are needle-shaped and confined to short, lateral shoots. Unlike a few conifers, such as the bald cypress and dawn redwood, which shed their leaves in the fall, pines and most conifers are evergreens.

Decomposition and Mineralization

Geographic Distribution Termites

0.05-2.3 during the first year of decomposition, depending on conifer tree species.Ambrosia beetles consumed 0-0.2 of the sapwood during the first year. Schowalter et al. (1998) found that virtually the entire inner bark of oak logs was consumed by beetles during the first 2 years of decomposition, facilitating separation of the outer bark and exposing the sapwood surface to generalized saprophytic microorganisms. Edmonds and Eglitis (1989) used exclusion techniques to demonstrate that, over a 10-year period, bark beetles and wood-borers increased decay rates of large Douglas-fir logs (42 cm diameter at breast height) by 12 and of small logs (26 cm diameter at breast height) by 70 . Litter fragmentation greatly increases the surface area exposed for microbial colonization. Zhong and Schowalter (1989) reported that ambrosia beetle densities averaged 300 m-2 bark surface in Douglas-fir and western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla, logs, and their galleries extended 9-14 cm in 4-9 cm thick...

Factors Affecting Succession

Granivores tend to feed on the largest seeds available, which most often represent later successional plant species, and thereby inhibit succession (Davidson 1993). Herbivores and granivores can interact competitively to affect local patterns of plant species survival and succession. For example, Ostfeld et al. (1997) reported that voles dominated interior portions of old fields, fed preferentially on hardwood seedlings over white pine, Pinus strobes, seedlings, and competitively displaced mice, which fed preferentially on white pine seeds over hardwood seeds near the forest edge. This interaction favored growth of hardwood seedlings in the ecotone and favored growth of white pine seedlings in the old field interior.

To enzootic swamp habitats

Cartoon depicting transmission of Eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America. The enzootic cycle occurs in hardwood swamps where the ornithophilic mosquito Culiseta melanura transmits the virus among passerine birds that serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. Because Cs. melanura rarely bites mammals, other bridge vectors in the genera Aedes, Ochlerotatus, and Coquillettidia are believed to transmit this virus to humans, horses, pigs and gamebirds that suffer severe and often fatal disease. Because these hosts develop little or no viremia, they are considered dead-end and do not contribute to amplification. An exception is direct transmission via pecking among gamebirds, such as pheasants In contrast to WEEV, WNV and SLEV, the distribution of EEEV is restricted primarily to hardwood swamp habitats in coastal and inland locations of eastern North America (Fig. 2). Overwhelming evidence indicates that Cs. melanura, the principal enzootic vector, transmits EEEV among...

Regulation of Net Primary Productivity by Insects

Fire Suppression Effects Human Body

Forest (see Fig. 15.7), a conspicuous deviation from historic conditions. Outbreaks of a variety of folivore and bark beetle species have become more frequent in these altered forests. During mesic periods and in more mesic locations (e.g., riparian corridors and higher elevations) the mountain pine beetle has advanced succession by facilitating the replacement of competitively stressed pines by more competitive firs. However, during inevitable drought periods, such as occurred during the 1980s, moisture limitation increases the vulnerability of these firs to several folivores and bark beetles specific to fir species (Fig. 15.8). Insect-induced mortality of the firs reversed succession by favoring the remaining drought- and fire-tolerant pines. Tree mortality can increase the severity and scale of catastrophic fires, which historically were rare in these forests, unless litter decomposition reduces fuel accumulation before fire occurs. However, this altered fire regimen likely will be...

Forests

The eastern half of North America, from southern Canada to Florida, was once thickly covered by deciduous forests of maple, oak, beech, ash, sycamore, hickory, and other trees that shed their leaves in the winter. Where this forest remains, it provides food for a wide variety of mammals, including black bears, red foxes, raccoons, red and gray squirrels, mink, muskrats, jackrabbits, cottontail rabbits, groundhogs, chipmunks, mice, moles, bobcats, skunks, ermine, opossums, and porcupines. Fish species common to the rivers of eastern and southeastern North America include catfish, suckers, and gar. Several species of salamanders and turtles live in the marshes, streams, and rivers of the deciduous forests, especially in the Appalachians. Waterfowl such as kingfishers, herons, ducks, and grebes also live along the waterways of the hardwood forest region.

Rain Forests

Rain forests provide habitats for at least 50 percent (some estimates are as high as 90 percent) of the total stock of plant, insect, and other animal species on earth. They supply one-half of the world's annual harvest of hardwood and hundreds of food products, such as chocolate, spices, nuts, coffee, and tropical fruits. Tropical rain forests also provide the main ingredients in 25 percent of prescription and nonprescription drugs, as well as 75 percent of the three thousand plants identified as containing chemicals that fight cancer. Industrial materials, such as natural latex rubber, resins, dyes, and essential oils, are also harvested from tropical forests.

Temperate Forest

Deciduous trees are also referred to as hardwoods, while conifers are softwoods, a classification that refers more to the typical density of the wood than to how difficult it is to nail into it. Softwoods are lower in density and will generally float in water while still green. Hardwoods are higher in density on average and will sink.

Boreal Forest

The boreal forest, which lies in a band across the northern United States, Canada, northern Europe, and northern Asia, is primarily a coniferous forest. The dominant species are trees such as white spruce, hemlock, and white pine. Mixed stands of northern hardwoods, such as birch, sugar maple, and red oak, may be found along the southern reaches of the boreal forest. As the forest approaches the Arctic, trees are fewer in type, becoming primarily spruce, birch, and willows, and smaller in size. The understory is generally thin or nonexistent, consisting of seedlings of shade-tolerant species, such as maple, and low shrubs. Patches of boreal-type forest can be found quite far south in higher elevations in the United States, such as the mountains of West Virginia. The edge of the temperate forest has crept steadily northward following the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age twenty thousand years ago.

Transport Mechanisms

Such tissues permitted the plants not only to develop leaves to more efficiently harvest light, but also to grow to great height and thereby increase their surface area and photosynthetic efficiency in the competition with neighbors. This process has sometimes been called colonization of the air by which tree tops with maximum height levels of about 113 m (coastal redwood Sequoia sempervirens in the US northwest) are reached today.

Mountain Fauna

Mountains are threatened in a variety of ways. There are constant threats from human activities, such as camping, hiking, and other recreational activities. Hikers create tracks in the soil that form erosion gullies. Likewise, hikers may trample on vegetation that has taken many years to grow. Commercial harvesting of trees in the lower forest zones of mountains is having an increasingly detrimental effect on biodiversity. Many countries have replanted indigenous trees with fast-growing coniferous trees, in an ill-fated effort to supply a growing human population with wood products. These hybrid forests are not nearly as beautiful as the native forests, but more to the point, they do not offer an environment conducive to the ecosystem that the native species supported. This problem creates a loss of wildlife, which becomes even more rare in these forests because of the decline of native vegetation. Global warming is another threat to mountain ecosystems. Snowlines are receding, and...

The Protozoa

The shells of mollusks are usually arranged into two major layers an outer prismatic layer and an inner nacreous or pearly layer. The prismatic layer is composed of vertically oriented prisms that are bounded by matrix to separate each prism from one another. The prisms are elongated and extend upward to the organic layer of the shell, termed the periostracum. The nacreous layer is composed of cross-laminated lamellae. The lamellae are oriented in different directions, much like plywood layering. This serves to increase the strength of the shell in its resistance to cracking. The amount of matrix in the shells of mollusks is quite low and may be less than 1 percent of the shell volume. The mantle tissue that lines the shell is responsible for

Clear Cutting

Selective harvesting, in contrast with clear-cutting, leaves trees standing on the tract. This method can be utilized with even-age plantation stands as a way of thinning them. More commonly, it is used in mixed- and uneven-age stands to harvest only trees of a desired species or size. In cutting hardwood for use as lumber, for example, 12 inches (30 centimeters) may be considered the minimum diameter of a harvestable tree. Trees smaller than that will be left in the woods to continue growing.

Lichens

Foliose Lichens

Lichens have been loosely grouped into three major growth forms, which have no basis in their natural relationships but are convenient as a first step in their identification (Fig. 19.36). Crustose lichens are attached to or embedded in their substrate over their entire lower surface. They often form brightly colored crusty patches on bare rocks and tree bark. The hyphae of some that grow on sedimentary rocks penetrate as much as 1 centimeter (0.4 inch) into the rock. Others grow just beneath the cuticle of the leaves of tropical hardwood trees, with no apparent harm to the leaves. Foliose lichens have somewhat leaflike thalli, which often overlap one another. They are weakly attached to the substrate. The edges are frequently crinkly or divided into lobes. Fruticose lichens may resemble miniature upright shrubs, or they may hang down in festoons from branches. Their thalli, which are usually branched, are basically cylindrical in form and are attached at one point.

Plant Succession

If these trees were to be cut down or destroyed by fire, the same species would not grow again. Rather, poplar trees would likely come first and would eventually be followed by other hardwood, deciduous trees. The climax forest of northern Michigan is said to be neither pine, spruce, nor hemlock but, rather, maple, oak, or hickory. So why are coniferous trees growing there now The argument is that they have held on from the time that they were the climax vegetation after the retreat of the last glacier but that if some event were to take them away, they would not return.

Other Conifers

Zygote Develops Into Embryo

Cypress and redwood seed cone scales are flattened at the tips and narrow at the base, where they do not overlap one another as do pine cone scales. The two California species of redwoods are both renowned for their size, height, and longevity. Coastal redwoods occasionally grow to a height of 90 meters (295 feet), and one tree in Humboldt County, California, is 111.6 meters (366.2 feet) tall it is believed to be the tallest conifer in the world. The other species, usually referred to as Big Tree or Giant Redwood, is confined to the western slopes of California's Sierra Nevada range. It does not grow quite as tall as the coastal redwood but exceeds it in total mass. The General Sherman tree in Sequoia National Park, for example, is 31 meters (101.5 feet) in circumference at the base and over 24 meters (79 feet) in circumference 1.5 meters (5 feet) above the ground. It weighs an estimated 5,594 metric tons (6,167 tons). There are 600,000 board feet of...

Perfoliate

Common Leaf Arrangement

The scales are imbricate or overlapping, much like shingles on a roof. The leaves of the yew (Taxus) are sharp-pointed, flattened, and narrowly lance-shaped. They are spirally arranged on the branches but almost always give the appearance of being 2-ranked. This is also true for the dawn redwood (Metasequoia) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), both of which are deciduous in the fall, dropping entire branchlets with the attached leaves. Yew podocarpus (Podocarpus macrophylla) in the podocarpus family (Podocarpa-ceae), on the other hand, has a obvious spiral arrangement of the leaves.

Notes Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo Biloba Male Staminate Strobilus

Gymnosperms are generally and correctiy considered to be coniferous trees having needle-shaped leaves commonly retained on the plant for several years. They are thus called evergreens. An exception is Ginkgo biloba, which has many traits of a hardwood angiosperm. Ginkgo biloba is the only remaining survivor of the Ginkgophytes, which were extensive in the late Paleozoic period. Their ancestors are unknown, but they seem to have arisen from more than a single precursor. In past times, there were sixteen genera now there is only one. The tree is commonly grown in cultivation, and probably does not grow in its native habitat. It is dioecious, and the staminate trees are preferred in cultivation because the female trees produce foul-smelling fruits. Leaves appear in late spring and are shed in the fall. Ginkgo biloba is commonly called the maidenhair tree because of the resemblance of its leaves to the maidenhair fern, Adiantum.

Wood And Its Uses

Wood And Its Uses

Wood Products In the United States and Canada, about half of the wood produced is used as lumber, primarily for construction the sawdust and other waste formed in processing the boards is converted to particle board and pulp. A considerable amount of lumber goes into the making of furniture, which may be constructed of solid wood or covered with a veneer. A veneer is a very thin sheet of desirable wood that is glued to cheaper lumber it is carefully cut so as to produce the best possible view of the grain (Fig. 6.18). The next most extensive use of wood is for pulp, which among other things is converted by various processes to paper, synthetic fibers, plastics, and linoleum. In recent years, it has been added as a filler to commercial ice cream and bread. Some hardwoods are treated chemically or heated under controlled conditions to yield a number of chemicals, such as wood alcohol and acetic acid, but other sources of these products are now usually considered more economical....

Community Dynamics

Coccotrypes Rhizophorae

Herbivory by livestock in a transplant garden containing mid-seral and late-seral grass species to test alternative hypotheses that (1) mid-seral species have greater tolerance to herbivory or (2) herbivory is focused on late-seral species to explain species replacement in intensively grazed grasslands in the southern United States. They found that late-seral species had greater competitive ability and equivalent or higher tolerance to herbivory, indicating that selective herbivory on the late-successional species is the primary mechanism for reversal of succession (i.e., return to dominance by mid-seral species under intense grazing pressure). Conversely, Bach (1990), Coley (1980,1982,1983), Coley and Aide (1991), and Lowman and Box (1983) reported that intensities of herbivory by insects were higher in earlier successional stages than in later successional stages. Schowalter et al. (1981a) suggested that southern pine beetle is instrumental in advancing succession in the absence of...

Plant Propagation

Enlargement, and cell differentiation. Mitosis is also essential in wound healing through the production of a mass of cells called callus. Vegetative propagation, an asexual process through mitosis, plays an important role in agriculture. Through vegetative propagation, individual plants of the progeny population are genetic copies both of the original source plant and of one another. Such plants are known as clones, and the process is called cloning. Examples of cloning include grafting hardwood cuttings of grapevines and apple trees and rapid propagation of liriope by crown division. The best-known example of vegetative propagation is probably the production of Macintosh apples via grafting. More recently, micropropagation via direct cell cultures and related biotechnology has played a critical role in agriculture.

Summary

Xylem Springwood

An annual ring is 1 year's growth of xylem. Atree's age and other aspects of its history can be determined from annual rings. Rays, which function in lateral conduction, radiate out from the center of the trunk. Older wood toward the center (heartwood) ceases to function when its cells become plugged with tyloses. Younger, functioning wood (sapwood) is closer to the surface. A tree's functions are not particularly affected by the rotting of its heartwood. 13. The wood of cone-bearing trees consists primarily of tracheids, and resin canals are often present. The wood of conifers has no fibers or vessels and is called softwood, while the wood of woody dicots is called hardwood. In woody plants, older tissues composed of thin-walled cells become crushed and functionless, and some are sloughed off.

Squirrels

Gray squirrels might best be considered opportunistic omnivores. Commonly known to consume nuts and seeds as well as buds and fruits from hardwood trees, gray squirrels have also been known to consume baby birds, insects, and fungi. Nevertheless, during the autumn and winter, gray squirrels depend almost exclusively on the mast crop from hardwood trees as their food source. Beginning in late summer to early autumn, gray squirrels begin to scatterhoard nuts. Scatterhoarding entails burying nests to obtain food. During the winter months, gray squirrels will den together in tree cavities, presumably to conserve heat. Females usually den with other females (often in mother-daughter groups) and males usually den with other males. Dens are lined with leaves as insulation. Squirrels also use a variety of anthropogenically produced materials in den construction. Foil-coated fast-food wrappers and laundry lint are not uncommon discoveries in squirrel nests. During warmer months, gray squirrels...

Conifers

Swamp Cypress Trees With Knees

Larches, which along with the dawn redwood and bald cypress are exceptions to the rule that conifers are evergreens, have some of the most durable of all conifer woods. Fence posts of larch are known to last 20 years. In the southern and southwestern United States, posts of juniper wood and bald cypress last even longer, some remaining usable for 40 to 50 years or more. The resin of the western larch has been used in the manufacture of baking powder, and the European larch is the source of a special type of turpentine. Douglas fir, found in the mountains of the West, is not a true fir. In the Pacific Northwest, it grows into giant trees that are second only to the redwoods in size. It is probably the most desired timber tree in the world today. The wood is strong and relatively free of knots as a result of rapid growth, with less branching than most other conifers. It is heavily used in plywoods and is a major source of large beams. A useful wax is extracted from the bark of Douglas...

Invertebrate Feeding

Among the protozoans there are a variety of diets and feeding mechanisms. Organisms in the phylum Ciliophora have a cytostome, a cell mouth that can be found anteriorly, laterally, or ventrally, depending on species, on these single-celled creatures. Ciliates feed primarily on bacteria, algae, and other protozoans. Members of the phylum Amoebozoa have a similar diet to the ciliates but, in the absence of mouths, use pseudopodia to wrap around a food item, engulfing it. Euglena (phylum Euglenozoa), a flagellate protozoan commonly used in biology laboratories, is a self-feeder (autotroph). It contains chloroplasts and uses light energy to produce sugars, photosynthesized as in plants. It is interesting to note that some euglenids can and do ingest solid food if they are exposed to darkness for too long. Another group of interesting flagellates is the hypermastigotes. Species such as Trichonympha campanula live in the guts of termites. T. campanula breaks down the high cellulose content...

The Plant Body

Longest Pines Recorded

On November 1, 2002, John Quigley climbed into the branches of a 70-foot-tall oak tree estimated to be 150 to 400 years old. He stayed perched there until he was removed, 71 days later, to allow a housing developer to cut down the tree. That was a short stay, however, compared with Julia Butterfly Hill's sojourn in a 600-year-old redwood. In the year 2000, Hill created a perch 180 feet above ground and didn't come down to Earth until just over 2 years later, when the Pacific Lumber Company agreed to spare that tree and others in its immediate vicinity.

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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