Waste Material Ebooks Catalog
The disposal treatment of wastestreams is an issue that must be considered as early as possible in process development. A promising purification technique may not be feasible at production scale because a waste stream requiring treatment may exceed the limits of the plant's and or municipality's treatment system. Furthermore, in situations where organic solvents are used, an acceptable facility must either be in existence or be built. In general, when a waste stream from a potential commercial process is suspected of containing a toxic or hazardous substance, it is prudent to consult the firm's health and environmental safety department. This will not only clarify possible safety issues associated with operator handling but will also help define facility considerations and disposal requirements. Since commercial scale processes commonly utilize equipment (e.g., tanks and transfer lines) that is cleaned in place with acid and or caustic solutions, the resulting waste streams are...
A cell, typically 10-30 millionths of a metre (10-30 im) across for humans, contains many specialized structures called organelles (Figure 1.1). The cell membrane controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell and encloses cell organelles as well as cell substances the cytoplasm serves as a fluid container for cell organelles and other cell substances as well as helping in the transport of substances within the cell the nucleus directs all cell activity and carries hereditary information the en-doplasmic reticulum serves as a transport network and storage area for substances within the cell the ribosome manufactures different kinds of cell protein the Golgi apparatus packages protein for storage or transport out of the cell the lysosome digests or breaks down food materials into simpler parts and removes waste materials from the cell the mitochondria serve as the power supply of the cell by producing ATP -adenosine triphosphate - which is the source of energy for all cell...
As presented in the two previous subsections, several viable options exist for high throughput bioanalysis. It is interesting to note that an issue seldom discussed is the relative cost of the reagents and supplies associated with the various methods. For example, the issue of high mobile-phase consumption waste-stream production in TFC may be a concern. A similar situation occurs with 4.6-mm inside diameter (ID) monolithic LC columns hence, the push for smaller-bore monolithic columns.
Now, we wish to discuss the supply of nutrient blood to the heart. This blood nourishes the tissues of the heart. The nutrient blood supplies oxygen and food materials to the tissues of the heart and removes waste materials. This nutrient blood is supplied to the walls of the heart by the right and left coronary arteries.
Another very valuable commodity that could be mined on our closest neighbor in space is the helium isotope 3 He that has been brought to the Moon by the solar wind blowing since billions of years. This isotope, embedded in lunar soil and discovered during the manned Moon missions is extremely scarce on Earth. Potentially, 3 He could be used in fusion reactors such as those being presently realized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (see ITER 2005) fusion project. While in ITER one uses tritium fusion in the reaction 2H + 3H 4He + n, where a deuterium 2H and a tritium 3H fuse to produce helium 4He and a neutron n, the 3He fusion with the reaction 2H + 3He 4He + p, is similar except instead of a neutron now a proton p is produced. Because high-energy protons can be much better handled than high-energy neutrons, which degrade the shielding walls of the reaction chamber and lead to radioactive waste materials, the 3 He fusion would be much cleaner. While one...
The kidney can produce urine that can be highly concentrated or very dilute. For humans, urine can be four times more concentrated than body fluids and contain 1,200 milliosmoles of solute. Other animals, particularly some desert species, can produce urine five times more concentrated than that. The more concentrated the urine, the more water is retained during the excretion of waste materials.
Product passout ports are a type of bagging port, which provides for semicontinuous output of relatively small items, such as prepared syringes, TPN bags, or waste material. The principle is to provide a quantity of layflat polyethylene tubing reefed onto a cartridge, so that an item can be passed out of the isolator into this polyethylene tube. Two heat seals are then made across the tube between the cartridge and the item, thus forming a sealed package that may be cut off the main tube and taken away. In this way, single items may be removed from the isolator at intervals, without the need for sterilisation or decontamination via a lockchamber or RTP. This can carry on until the layflat tubing is exhausted and another batch must be loaded onto the cartridge, whilst the door to the isolator is closed, as described by the manufacturer.
Here, the decontamination emphasis is not only on a cleaning process, but also a sterilisation process. Thus, the various methods for rigorous isolation sterilisation may be applied, such as formaldehyde, PAA, or hydrogen peroxide. These may be used in the liquid or vapour phases, but whichever method is chosen, the method should be validated before routine use. Where waste materials and solutions are removed from biological containment isolators, they should ideally be autoclaved before further disposal.
The function of the digestive system (Fig. 12-1) is to prepare food for intake by body cells. Nutrients must be broken down by mechanical and chemical means into molecules that are small enough to be absorbed into the circulation. Within cells, the nutrients are used for energy and for rebuilding vital cell components. Digestion takes place in the digestive tract proper, also called the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Also contributing to the digestive process are several accessory organs that release secretions into the small intestine. Food is moved through the digestive tract by peristalsis, wavelike contractions of the organ walls. Peristalsis also moves undigested waste material out of the body.
The organs of excretion have taken many forms. Simple single-celled organisms such as amoebas are able to form contractile vacuoles, or walled-off spaces within the cell, in which water can be stored and waste products deposited. These vacuoles are periodically transported through the cytoplasm and excreted through the external cell membrane. The size and number of vacuoles are determined by water intake and the organism's need to eliminate water as well as by the accumulation of waste materials.
The exchange of gases, nutrients, water, and waste material occurs at the capillary level and is governed by the interplay of two opposing but balanced forces. At the proximal end of a capillary, intravascular pressure slightly exceeds tissue pressure. The gradient in hydrostatic pressure results in hydraulic ultrafilration, a process characterized by the movement of fluid through the capillary wall and into the extracellular compartment. Composed of a single layer of endothelial cells, the capillary acts as a selective filter. The degree of selectivity varies with the physical properties of the endothelium in different tissues. Passage of relatively large molecules (e.g., proteins) is largely impeded, although some leakage occurs with subsequent reabsorption into lymphatic vessels and a return to the circulation. As a result of ultrafiltration, the concentration of solute (plasma osmolarity) increases along the length of a capillary, and the associated force (termed oncotic pressure)...
Let us focus on the mitochondria of cells as an example. Like most manufacturing processes, this energy-production factory also produces toxic waste. The waste consists of excess electrons. Occasionally, those electrons do not crash into molecular oxygen and do make water. Instead, the electrons crash into other atoms creating molecules with unpaired electrons called free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive and cause a lot of internal cellular damage. Oxygenated free radicals are also called ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) molecules. Like a lot of industrial waste, ROS molecules can damage anything that they encounter in their way, including proteins, fats, RNA, and even DNA.
Biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms or biological techniques developed through basic research. Biotechnology products include antibiotics, insulin, interferon, and recombinant DNA, and techniques such as waste recycling. The Office of Biotechnology Activities of the National Institutes of Health monitors scientific progress in human genetics research in order to anticipate future developments, including ethical, legal, and social concerns, in basic and clinical research involving recombinant DNA, genetic testing, and xenotransplantation (the use of organs from other species of mammals for transplants). In addition to organs donated from humans, researchers are exploring the use of partially or wholly artificial organs manufactured in the laboratory.
Members of earlier generations routinely drained the oil from their vehicle crankcases directly on to the ground or into storm drains or took the used oil and other hazardous wastes to the dump. Highly toxic industrial wastes were also disposed of both within and at the outskirts of cities and towns. In 1996, it was estimated that some 12 million children in the United States were living less than 4 miles from a hazardous waste site. Disasters have occurred when living organisms (including humans) have not been properly isolated from radioactive wastes produced by atomic energy plants. Even when hazardous wastes aren't unceremoniously dumped, serious accidents and spills take place, with the effects sometimes lingering indefinitely, as, for example, in and around the former Soviet Union's Chernobyl atomic meltdown site. Today, there are concerted efforts to curb the disposal of hazardous wastes and to greatly reduce the probabilities of accidents and spills. At most solid-waste dumps,...
Toilet facilities, including vestibules, must be kept clean, free of objectionable odors, and in good repair. Adequate quantities of toilet tissue, hand towels and other supplies must be provided at all times. Easily cleanable receptacles must be provided for waste materials and sanitary napkins. All receptacles will be covered with self-closing lids.
Human and other primate cells should be handled using Biosafety Level 2 practices and containment appropriate for the institute and local authorities. All work should be performed in a BSC with appropriate PPE (gloves, glasses, laboratory coats), and all waste material should be decontaminated by autoclaving or disinfection before discarding. For a discussion of recommendations and requirements refer to Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories at http www.cdc.gov od ohs biosfty bmbl4 bmbl4toc.htm.
Logging, whether of one tree or one thousand trees, involves four basic steps selecting the timber to be harvested, felling the trees, trimming away waste material, and removing the desired portion of the tree from the woods. Equipment used in logging ranges from simple hand tools, such as axes and crosscut saws, to multifunction harvesting machines. Mechanized feller bunchers, for example, can fell the tree, trim off the branches, cut the stem into logs, and stack logs to await removal from the forest. The choice of equipment utilized in harvesting a specific stand of timber depends on factors such as the terrain, the type of timber to be logged, and whether the logger intends to harvest only selected trees or to clear-cut the site.
After electrolytes and water have been absorbed, the waste material that is left passes to the rectum, leading to an increase in rectal pressure, relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, and the urge to defecate. If the urge to defecate is denied, feces are prevented from entering the anal canal by the external anal sphincter. In this case the feces remain in the rectum, and may even back up into the sigmoid colon. The defecation reflex normally occurs when the rectal pressure rises to a particular level that is determined, to a large degree, by habit. At this point, the external anal sphincter relaxes to admit feces into the anal canal.
The large intestine, or colon, extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus, framing the small intestine on three sides. Chyme from the ileum passes into the cecum, which is a blind pouch (open only at one end) at the beginning of the large intestine. Waste material then passes in sequence through the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anal canal (fig. 18.17). Waste material (feces) is excreted through the anus, the external opening of the anal canal.
As blood flows through the glomerulus, blood pressure forces materials through the glomerular wall and through the wall of the glomerular capsule into the nephron. The fluid that enters the nephron, the glomerular filtrate, consists mainly of water, electrolytes, soluble wastes, nutrients, and toxins. The main waste material is urea, the nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) byproduct of protein metabolism. The filtrate should not contain any cells or proteins such as albumin. The waste material and the toxins must be eliminated, but most of the water, electrolytes, and nutrients must be returned to the blood or we would rapidly starve and dehydrate. This return process, termed tubular reabsorption, occurs through the peritubular capillaries that surround the nephron. As the filtrate flows through the nephron, other processes further regulate its composition and pH. The concentration of the filtrate is also adjusted under the effects of the pituitary hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH)....
Undigested food, water, and digestive juices pass into the large intestine. This part of the digestive tract begins in the lower right region of the abdomen with a small pouch, the cecum, to which the appendix is attached. The large intestine continues as the colon, a name that is often used to mean the large intestine because the colon constitutes such a large portion of that organ. The colon travels upward along the right side of the abdomen as the ascending colon, crosses below the stomach as the transverse colon, then continues down the left side of the abdomen as the descending colon. As food is pushed through the colon, water is reabsorbed and stool or feces is formed. This waste material passes into the S-shaped sigmoid colon and is stored in the rectum until eliminated through the anus.
It is often stated that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Thus, the researching and understanding of all the dimensions of ecological niches are integral components of preventing environmental manipulations by humankind that might lead to species extinction. Many science authorities have agreed that future research in ecology and related fields should focus on solving three main problems species endangerment, soil erosion, and solid waste management.
Much of the bone in adult vertebrates derives from cartilage, elastic, fibrous connective tissue which is the main component of fetal vertebrate skeletons. Such bone, for example, that of the long bones, is called cartilage bone. Cartilage is an extracellular matrix made by body cells called chondrocytes. It is surrounded by a membrane, the periosteum, and much of its firmness and elasticity arises from plentiful fibrils of the protein collagen that it contains. These fibrils and their many interconnections provide mechanical stability and very high tensile strength, while allowing nutrients to diffuse into the chon-drocytes to keep them alive. The blood vessels which surround the cartilage in the periosteum provide all of the needed nutrients and remove the cellular waste materials produced by life processes.
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