Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

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The fact that sperm entry into the oocyte is entirely independent of both sperm movement and the integrity of the sperm functions required for the zona pellucida binding and penetration for the binding and fusion with the oolemma marks an additional important release of sperm selection stringency. Sperm motility has no more importance, except for that of an easily perceptible marker of sperm viability. The presence and function of sperm surface binding sites and acrosomal enzymes becomes completely irrelevant with regard to the fertilizing ability.

Under these conditions, however, the importance of another set of factors, some of which were not perceived in the conventional IVF era because of their association with other defects that impeded sperm entry to the oocyte, gains importance. Most of these factors are related to success of oocyte activation or failure and to the early development of the zygote (11).

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