Endometrial Thickness and Pattern for Assessing Endometrial Receptivity

Ovarian Follicle Aspiration Needle

Ultrasonography has been used, with varying degrees of success, to correlate the probability of pregnancy in ovarian stimulation-ovulation induction cycles and IVF cycles 73-77 . Most imaging studies have been attempting to predict the probability of implantation. A thicker endometrium was observed on the day of oocyte retrieval in women who conceived during that cycle 74 . The IVF pregnancy rate increased in cycles when the endo-metrium was gt 9 mm but lt 14 mm 75 . In another study, no...

Types of Media for Embryo Culture

Culture media employed for clinical IVF vary greatly in their composition, yet there appears to be little difference between media in their ability to support development of the human embryo in vitro for up to 48 hours or in subsequent pregnancy rates after transfer 12 . This has led to a great deal of confusion concerning the formulation of embryo culture media and the role of individual components in embryo development. An understanding of the role of culture media and their components has...

Fertilization and Embryo Cleavage After ICSI

Fertilisation Polar Bodies Cleavage

After the injection procedure, oocytes are rinsed and cultured in micro-droplets covered with lightweight paraffin oil. The conditions are similar to those employed for IVF inseminated oocytes the oocytes are kept at 37 C in an atmosphere of 5 O2, 5 CO2, and 90 N2. Injected oocytes are examined for integrity and fertilization about 16-18 hours after ICSI 67 . An average damage rate of approximately 9 of the injected oocytes can be expected, irrespective of the origin of the sperm used 45 ....

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection History of ICSI

Extremely low sperm counts, impaired motility, and abnormal morphology represent the main causes of failed fertilization in conventional IVF. Today, ICSI is the ultimate option to treat these cases of severe male-factor infertility. One single viable spermatozoon, preferably of good morphology, is selected by the embryologist and injected in each oocyte available. ICSI is based on micromanipulation of oocytes and spermatozoa. Initially, partial zona dissection PZD was established to facilitate...