V

Valproate, mechanism of action, 49

Vascular anatomy, spine, 15-22 angiography cervical, 22 lower thoracic, 22 lumbar, 22 sacral, 22 upper thoracic, 22 macrocirculation, 15-20, 16-17, 18t, 19 cervical, 17 dorsal-longitudinal arteries, 16 lumbosacral, 17 pretransverse arteries, 16 radicular arteries, 18 radiculomedullary arteries, 18-19

radiculopial arteries, 18 spinal arteries, diameter, 18

thoracic, 17

ventrolateral arteries, 16 microcirculation, 20-22, 21 centrifugal system, 20 centripetal system, 20-22 somatic arterial supply, 22 angiography, 22

Vascular congestion, pathological filling defect produced by, 173

Vascular malformations, spinal, 292-304 arteriovenous fistulas, classification scheme for, 292-293 conus medullaris arteriovenous malformation, 299-304, 300-303 dural arteriovenous malformation, 292-296, 293t, 295-297

therapy, 296 epidural arteriovenous fistulas, 292 therapy, 292 extradural/intradural arteriovenous malformation, 298-299 therapy, 299 intradural arteriovenous fistula, 296-298, 297 therapy, 298 intramedullary arteriovenous malformation, 299 Spetzler classification, spinal vascular lesions, 292-293 systemic syndromes with, 306

Cobb's syndrome, 306 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 306 Osler-Weber-Rendu

Syndrome, 306 Parkes-Weber syndrome, 306

Vascular runoff, as complication of epidurography, 183-187, 184-186 Venous anatomy, spine, 22-26, 23-25, 25t cervical veins, 26 lumbar veins, 26 number of spinal veins, 25 sacral veins, 26 thoracic veins, 26 Ventrolateral arteries, of spine, 16

Vertebral compression fractures therapy kyphoplasty, 234-244 vertobroplasty, 245-272 Vertebral hemangiomas, 306-310 type A, 307-308, 308-309

therapy, 307-308 type B, 309-310

therapy, 309-310 type C, 310 therapy, 310 Vertebral volume, from cervical to lumbar regions, 3 Vertebroplasty, 61-63, 245-272 anesthesia, 258-259, 258t antibiotics, 258

cement injection, 262-264,

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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