Our experience has been that conscious sedation and/or anesthesia are needed only rarely for this procedure.12 In the hands of a skilled pro-ceduralist and experienced technical staff, discography is performed routinely on fully alert, unsedated ambulatory outpatients in a short period of time (10-45 minutes, depending upon the number of discs studied). Since the patient's perceptions and response(s) are the main focus of this test, the patient should be alert and able to communicate during the procedure. In isolated circumstances, however, conscious sedation may be advisable for selected patients who are agitated, have physical limitations, and/or who are in such extreme pain that any added stress might limit their ability to cooperate.39
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.