R

Radicular arteries, spine, 18 Radiculomedullary arteries, spine, 18-19 Radiculopial arteries, spine, 18 Radiographs, conventional, 41 Rehabilitation medicine, 51 cold application, 51 electrical stimulation, for muscle spasm, 51 gait abnormalities, correction of, 51 heat application, 51 strengthening exercises, 51 stretching exercises, 51 ultrasound, with muscle spasm, 51 Reherniation, at previous surgery leel, automated percutaneous discectomy, 142-143 Ringer solution, as anesthetic, 259

Ropivacaine, use as anesthetic, 31, 32

Rotor failure of pump, as implanted drug delivery complication, 288-289 Roxicodone, for analgesia, 33

Sacral hiatus epidural steroid injection. See Caudal epidural steroid injection

Sacral spine, angiography, 22 Sacral veins, spine, 26 Sacroiliac joint injection, 58, 234-244 diagnosis, 235, 236, 236-237 hylan, injection with, 241 recent developments in, 241 technique, 237-241, 238-241 Screening, 44 Skeletal disorders, thermography, 42-43 Sleeping difficulties, with depression, anxiety, 47 Somatic arterial supply, spine, 22

angiography, 22 cervical, 22 lower thoracic, 22 lumbar, 22 sacral, 22 upper thoracic, 22 Soy, therapeutic use of, 50 Spasm, muscle. See Muscle spasm

Spetzler classification, spinal vascular lesions, 292-293 Spinal angiography, technique,

311-319, 312-318 Spinal arteries, diameter, 18 Spinal cord stimulation, 51-52 Spinal deformity, discography,

107-108 Spinal endoscopy, epidural fibrosis, 197 pathological changes with, 197 Spinal pain. See Pain, spinal Splanchnic sympathetic blockade, 219, 221-223 indications, 222 technique, 223 Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, 322-323 Spurs, hypertrophic, in radiograph, 41 Stellate ganglion blockade, 45, 219-221, 220 indications, 221 technique, 221 Steroid injection caudal epidural, 157-160, 158-159 initial description of, 149 cervical epidural, 160 complications of, 164-168, 165-166

epidural, 149-170 epidurolysis, 195-196, 196 facet joint, 209 interlaminar lumbar epidural, 151-155, 152,

154-155 intradiscal, 144

automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy, 144 midline epidural, introduction of technique, 149 pathoanatomy, 149-151 technique, 151-164 thoracic epidural, 160 transforaminal epidural,

155-157, 156-157 Structural abnormalities producing pathological filling defects, 173 Subdural injection, in epidurography, complications of, 187 Surgical complications, 286-287 Sympathetic blockades celiac plexus blockade, 219,

223-226 indications, 223 technique, 223-226,

224-225 hypogastric plexus blockade,

219, 229-232 indications, 229, 230 technique, 230, 231 impar ganglion blockade, 219, 232-233 indications, 232, 232 technique, 233 lumbar sympathetic blockade, 219, 226-229 indications, 226 technique, 227-229, 227-229 splanchnic sympathetic blockade, 219, 221-223 indications, 222 technique, 223 stellate ganglion blockade, 219-221, 220 indications, 221 technique, 221 thoracic sympathetic blockade, 219, 221-223 indications, 222 technique, 223

Systemic syndromes with spinal vascular malformations, 306 Cobb's syndrome, 306 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 306 Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome, 306 Parkes-Weber syndrome, 306

Telangiectasia, hemorrhagic, hereditary. See Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome Thermal energy, for discogenic pain, 61 Thermography circulatory disorders, 42-43 myofascial syndromes, 42-43

neuropathic syndromes,

42-43 skeletal disorders, 43 Thoracic arteries, spine, 17 Thoracic discography, 108-112, 109-112

Thoracic epidural injection, 160 Thoracic epidurography, 197 Thoracic spine, angiography, 22

Thoracic sympathetic blockade, 219, 221-223 indications, 222 technique, 223 Thoracic veins, spine, 26 Thyroid disorders, compression neuropathy from, screening for, 44 Tisseel fibrin sealant, 328 Topical agents, 50 Topiramate, mechanism of action, 49 Touhy needle, in percutaneous implanted drug delivery system, 280 Toxins, screening for, 44 Transcostovertebral biopsy approach, bone, 75 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, 46 Transforaminal epidural steroid injection, 155-157, 156-157 Transpedicular biopsy approach, bone, 75

Tricyclic antidepressants, 38, 48 anticholinergic effects of, 48 for postherpetic neuralgia, phantom limb pain, 34. See also under drug name

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