Opioids, which have demonstrated efficacy in both nonneuropathic and neuropathic pain, remain one of the more controversial agents used in the management of pain. There is no ceiling effect for opioids used to treat pain, and patients rarely become addicted to the medications when appropriately prescribed. Whenever possible, opioids should be given according to a time-contingent rather than a pain-contingent regimen. Physicians who adopt modern behavioral approaches believe that this minimizes the risk of psychological dependence.
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