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calcified disc herniations, results with, 355 clinical experience,

351-353, 352-353 complications, 357 degenerative disease complicated by herniation, results with, 352, 356 multiple disc herniations, results with, 354 oxygen-ozone mixture, 350 results, 353-356, 353-356 technical aspects, 351 tissue structure alterations, 357 multiple, 354 Hydrocodone, for analgesia, 33 Hydromorphone, for analgesia, 33

Hypogastric plexus blockade, 219, 229-232 indications, 229, 230 technique, 230, 231 Hypoglycemia, cerebrospinal fluid, treatment of, 326 Hypotension, intracranial, spontaneous, 322-323 Hypovolemia, cerebrospinal fluid, 322-334 diagnosis, 322-324 epidural blood patch, 324-328 alternative treatments, 325

contraindications, 325 prophylactic use of, 326 steroids, 326 technique, 326-328 fibrin glue patch, 328-331 blood-banked cryoprecipitate, 328-329 cryoprecipitate, drawback of using, 328 FDA-approved fibrin sealants, 328 fever with, 329 Hemaseel fibrin sealant, 328

prophylactic use of, 329 technique, 329-331,

330-331 Tisseel fibrin sealant, 328 spontaneous intracranial hypotension, 322-323

Image-guided spine interventions, 27-36, 53-68

analgesics, 32-33, 49-51 adjuvant, 33-34 for dysesthetic pain, 33-34 anesthetic agents, 31-32 antibiotics, 32 biplane fluoroscopic equipment, 27-29 conventional surgical management, compared, 53-68 corticosteroids, 30-31 cryoanalgesia, 35 discography, 54-56 epidural steroid injections,

60, 149-170, 325 facet blockade, 56-58,

203-218 fixed, single-plane fluoroscopic equipment, 28

imaging equipment, 27-30, 28-29 biplane fluoroscopic equipment, 28 fixed, single-plane fluoroscopic arrangement, 28 mobile C-arm fluoroscopic arrangement, 29 kyphoplasty, 61-63, 334-348

minimally invasive intradiscal therapy, 60-61

mobile C-arm fluoroscopic equipment, 29 nerve root blockade, 58-60,

161-168, 232-233 nonionic contrast agents, allergic reaction to, 34 pharmacological agents, 30-35, 50, 273-291 analgesics, 32-33, 49 anesthetics, 31-32 antibiotics, 32 corticosteroids, 30-31 radiographic contrast agents, 34-35

sacroiliac joint injections, 58,

234-244 tricyclic antidepressants, for postherpetic neuralgia, phantom limb pain, 34 vertebroplasty, 61-63, 245-272 Imaging studies, 41-43 bone scanning, 42 computed tomography scanning, 42 magnetic resonance imaging, 42

myelography, 42 radiographs, conventional, 41

thermography, 42-43 ultrasound, 42 Impar ganglion blockade, 219, 232-233 indications, 232, 232 technique, 233 Implanted drug delivery systems, 273-291 cancer-related pain, outcomes in, 284-285 clinic, 274-276, 276 complications of, 286-290 device-related complications, 287-289 infusate-related complications, 289-290 surgical complications, 286-287 constant flow rate pump, 274 implantation, 281-282 constant flow rate pump, 281-282

programmable pump, 282 pump preparation, 281 intraspinal opioids, exclusion, inclusion criteria, 278 non-cancer-related pain, outcomes in, 285-286 outcomes, 284-286 pain types, characteristics of, 277

patient selection, 276-280,

277t, 278t, 279t programmable pump,

274-275 screening techniques, 280-281 percutaneous technique, 280

surgical technique, 280-281 surgical implantation technique, 282-284 Synchromed implanted drug delivery programmer, 276, 284 World Health Organization analgesic ladder, 279 Informed consent issues in epidurography, 177 in epidurolysis, 177 in percutaneous vertebroplasty, 256 Interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injection, 151-155, 152, 154-155 Intervertebral discs, 8-11, 9-11

spinal pain and, 123 Intervertebral joints, 8-11, 9-11 Intracranial hypotension, spontaneous, 322-323 Intradiscal electrothermal annuloplasty, 121-136 anatomy, 121-123, 122 development of, 123 history of, 123-133, 124 indications for, 124-133,

126-132 intervertebral discs, spinal pain and, 123 postoperative care, 133-134 technique, 124-133, 126-132 Intradiscal oxygen-ozone, for herniated lumbar disc,

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