Figure 1.16. The venous drainage of the spinal cord. (1) The dorsal root, (2) the ventral nerve root, (3 and 10) the coronal venous plexus (radial veins), (4) the anterior median vein of the ventral longitudinal venous system, (5) a dorsal longitudinal vein, (6) a transmedullary anastomotic vein, (7) a dorsal sul-cal vein, (8) a radiculomedullary vein, (9) a ventral longitudinal vein.
unidirectional; rather, it depends upon the location of the outflow vein at each anatomic level.
The ventral epidural venous plexus drains into multiple different outflow veins, depending upon the anatomical level. These are as follows.
1. Cervical. Drainage is into the vertebral veins, which in turn empty into the innominate veins.
2. Thoracic. Drainage is into the intercostal veins, which then empty into the azygous and hemiazygous systems and subsequently the inferior vena cava.
3. Lumbar. Drainage is multiple, involving the ascending lumbar vein (on the left), the azygous and hemiazygous systems, and the left renal vein. The final common pathway is generally the inferior vena cava.
4. Sacral. Drainage is into sacral veins, emptying into the lateral sacral veins, and subsequently the internal iliac veins.
1. Netter FH. CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations: Nervous System. Vol 1. Ciba 1962:21-30.
2. Kothe R, O'Holleran JD, Liu W, et al. Internal architecture of the thoracic pedicle. Spine 1996;21:264-270.
4. Phillips JH, Kling TF, Cohen MD. The radiographic anatomy of the thoracic pedicle. Spine 1994;19:446-449.
5. Panjabi MM, Goel V, Oxland T, et al. Human lumbar vertebrae. Quantitative three-dimensional anatomy. Spine 1992;17:299-306.
6. Ebraheim NA, Rollins JR, Xu R, et al. Projection of the lumbar pedicle and its morphometric analysis. Spine 1996;21:1296-1300.
7. Robertson PA, Stewart NR. The radiologic anatomy of the lumbar and lum-bosacral pedicles. Spine 2000;25:709-715.
8. Ebraheim NA, Xu R, Ahmad M, et al. Projection of the thoracic pedicle and its morphometric analysis. Spine 1997;22:233-238.
9. Griffiths HJ, Parantainen H, Olsen PN. Disease of the lumbosacral facet joints. Neuroimaging Clin North Am 1993;3:567-575.
10. Group M, Stanton-Hicks M. Neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of pain related to spinal disorders. Radiol Clin North Am 1991;29:665-673.
11. Bonica JJ. The Management of Pain. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1990: 95-121.
12. DeMyer W. Neuroanatomy. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 1988:87-126.
13. Bromage PR: Anatomy of the epidural space. In: Bromage PR, ed; Epidural Analgesia. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1978:8-20.
14. Reynolds AF, Roberts PA, Pollay M, et al. Quantitative anatomy of the tho-racolumbar epidural space. Neurosurgery 1985;17:905.
15. Lasjaunias P, Berenstein A, TerBrugge KG. Surgical Neuroangiography. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2001.
16. Krauss WE. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord. Neurosurg Clin North Am 1999;10(1):9-15.
17. Yoss RE. Vascular supply of the spinal cord: the production of vascular syndromes. Univ Mich Med Bull 1950;16:333-345.
Was this article helpful?
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.