Figure 5.17. (A) Axial CT image obtained during a cervical spine biopsy of a sclerotic vertebral body lesion (arrow) shows a guide needle in place. (B) The bone needle deflected across the hard surface of this sclerotic lesion and was advanced into the opposite side of the vertebral body. The needle tip is located just medial to the foramen transversarium (arrow) and anterior to the right neural foramen. The patient did not experience any adverse sequelae despite this suboptimal needle placement.
causative agents, improper specimen handling or transport (e.g., not using anaerobic culture media when these organisms are suspected), or failing to follow specific cultures (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) for an extended period of observation.
To optimize the success of the biopsy procedure, the radiologist must communicate his or her clinical concerns to either the pathologist or the microbiologist. In the case of a suspected neoplasm, the clinical information and the radiological differential diagnosis should be communicated to the interpreting pathologist. The more useful the data shared with the pathologist and/or the microbiologist, the greater the likelihood of arriving at the correct diagnosis. (This is the equivalent of a radiologist's request for the appropriate clinical history from the referring clinician whenever imaging studies are to be performed or interpreted.) For instance, if a patient is undergoing a biopsy to test for possible metastatic breast cancer, it is helpful to inform the pathologist that the woman had a mastectomy last year at the same institution. Similarly, it is important to inform the microbiologist whether the patient is already on intravenous antibiotics or that a specific organism, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is causing concern.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.