The remarkable safety of the APLD technique is based on standardization of the APLD procedure with the recognition of important un changing radiographic landmarks that can be used to ensure proper placement of the instrumentation. The procedure is carried out under local anesthesia, this being perhaps the greatest reason for the lack of reports of significant neural injury with APLD. Sedation can be given, but the patient's level of consciousness must be carefully monitored to ensure that the patient can still respond to pain. The only major injury in the literature associated with APLD occurred in Mexico and resulted in a cauda equina injury when the procedure was carried out under general anesthesia without attention to the important radiographic landmarks.17 The other major safety factor in the procedure is the design of the aspiration probe: 2 mm size minimizes the chance for nerve injury during placement of the instruments; and once inside the disc, its blunt end and internal cutting side port make injury to surrounding structures impossible.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.