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Algorithm for pain management, 39 Allergic reaction to nonionic contrasts, 34 P-aminobenzoic acid, allergic potential, 31 Amitriptyline, for depression, 34

Analgesic ladder, World

Health Organization, 39, 279

Analgesics, 32-34. See also under drug name Anatomy of spine, 1-26 physical components of, 1-15 anatomical space, 14-15 bones, 1-11, 2-7, 3t discs, intervertebral, 8-11, 9-11

joints, intervertebral, 8-11, 9-11

nerves, 11-14, 13 vertebral volume, from cervical to lumbar regions, 3 somatic arterial supply cervical, 22 lower thoracic, 22 lumbar, 22 sacral, 22 upper thoracic, 22 vascular anatomy, 15-22 centrifugal system, 20 centripetal system, 20-22 cervical, 17

dorsal-longitudinal arteries, 16 lumbosacral, 17 macrocirculation, 15-20,

16-17, 18t, 19 microcirculation, 20-22, 21 pretransverse arteries, 16 radicular arteries, 18 radiculomedullary arteries, 18-19

radiculopial arteries, 18 somatic arterial supply, 22 spinal arteries, diameter, 18

thoracic, 17

ventrolateral arteries, 16 venous anatomy, 22-26, 23-25, 25t cervical veins, 26 lumbar veins, 26 number of spinal veins, 25 sacral veins, 26 thoracic veins, 26 Anesthetic agents, 31-32,

48-49, 49t. See also under drug name Aneurysmal bone cysts,

310-311 therapy, 311

Angiography cervical spine, 22 endovascular therapy,

311-319, 312-315, 316-318

equipment, 257 lower thoracic spine, 22

lumbar spine, 22 sacral spine, 22 upper thoracic spine, 22 Angioma, cavernous, 304 Anhedonia, with depression, anxiety, 47 Annuloplasty, electrothermal, intradiscal, 121-136 anatomy, 121-123, 122 development of, 123 history of, 123-133, 124 indications for, 124-133,

126-132 intervertebral discs, spinal pain and, 123 postoperative care, 133-134 technique, 124-133, 126-132 Anterolateral biopsy approach bone, 75 disc, 75 soft tissues, 75 Antibiotics, 32. See also under drug name Anticholinergic effects of tricyclic antidepressants, 48

Antidepressants, 38

anticholinergic effects of, 48 for postherpetic neuralgia, phantom limb pain, 34. See also under drug name Antiepileptic agents, 48 Antinuclear antibodies, in screening for autoimmune dysfunction, 44

Anxiety evaluation of, 46 as exacerbating component of pain, 47 Anxiolytic medications, 50 APLD. See Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy Appetite flux, with depression, anxiety, 47 Arrow International, development of constant flow rate pump, 274 Arteriovenous fistulas, classification scheme for, 292-293 Arteriovenous malformation, classification scheme for, 292-293 Arthritic osteophytes, in radiograph, 41 Aspiration of disc, in automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy, 145 Autoimmune dysfunction, screening for, 44 Autologous blood, harvesting of cryoprecipitate from, 328

Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy herniated disc, 137-148 aspiration of disc, 145 discitis, suspected, 144 far lateral herniation,

143-144 future developments in, 147 herniated nucleus pulposus, classic, 139-142, 140-141 instrument entry point, 144 intradiscal steroid injection, 144 local anesthetic injection, 144

patient positioning, 144 patient selection, 139-144 postoperative care, 147 probe placement for aspiration, 144-145 procedural steps, 144-145, 146

reherniation, at level of previous surgery, 142-143 technique, 144-145

Autonomic nerve blockade, 219-244 celiac plexus blockade, 219,

223-226 indications, 223 technique, 223-226,

224-225 hypogastric plexus blockade,

219, 229-232 indications, 229, 230 technique, 230, 231 impar ganglion blockade, 219, 232-233 indications, 232, 232 technique, 233 lumbar sympathetic blockade, 219, 226-229 indications, 226 technique, 227-229, 227-229 splanchnic sympathetic blockade, 219, 221-223 indications, 222 technique, 223 stellate ganglion blockade, 219-221, 220 indications, 221 technique, 221 sympathetic blockades, 219 thoracic sympathetic blockade, 219, 221-223 indications, 222 technique, 223 AVF. See Vascular malformations, spinal

Balloon kyphoplasty, 334-348 biomechanical investigations, 346

patient selection, 335,

335-336 results, 345-346 technique, 336-345, 337-344 vertebral body deformity in, 334-335 Battery failure, as implanted drug delivery complication, 288 Betamethasone sodium phosphate, betamethasone acetate and, for spine injection, 30-31

Bicarbonate, as anesthetic, 258

Biological aspects of pain, 40 Biopsy of spine, percutaneous, image-guided, 69-93 anterolateral, bone, 75 approaches to, 75 biopsy needle systems, 73 biopsy techniques, 75-91,

76-88, 90-91 coaxial needle systems, 74 commercially available biopsy systems, 74 complications of, 71 equipment, 73-75, 74, 74t fluoroscopy, 73 imaging guidance modalities, 73 indications for, 70 magnetic resonance imaging, 73

paraspinal, bone, 75 patient preparation, 70t, 71t,

71-72, 71-73 postoperative care, 91-92 transcostovertebral, bone, 75 transpedicular, bone, 75 Biplane fluoroscopic imaging, 28, 257 equipment, 257 Blood, autologous, harvesting of cryoprecipitate from, 328

Blood-banked cryoprecipitate,

328-329 Bone cysts, aneurysmal, 310-311 therapy, 311 Bone scanning, 42 Bones of spine, 1-11, 2-7, 3t Botulinum toxins, 50-51 Bupivicaine, use as anesthetic agent, 31, 32

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Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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