Acrylic cements have been used for the augmentation of weakened or partially destroyed bones for decades (63). The term vertebroplasty originally described an open surgical procedure that introduces bone graft or acrylic cement to mechanically augment weakened vertebral bodies. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the acrylic most commonly used as a bone filler. The first image-guided percutaneous vertebral augmentation or percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) was performed in France in 1984, when Deramond and Galibert injected PMMA into a C2 vertebra that had been partially destroyed by an aggressive hemangioma (64). The procedure relieved the patient's chronic pain. Shortly thereafter, PVP was used to treat vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis (65). The interest in PVP has continued to grow since its introduction in Europe and its subsequent introduction in the United States (66). In 1993, the first vertebroplasty procedure in the United States was performed at the University of Virginia on a patient with a breast cancer metastasis (66).

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