Retaining a Diet Full of Uncooked Foods
The Enzymes Effect
Enzymes which are usually proteins help to begin, aid in and accelerate every chemical reaction in the human body. Enzymes are the bodys main workforce, much like a construction company building a skyscraper.
Beyond the scope of this chapter, only a brief summary is provided here. Detailed information on food-associated environments and outbreaks of listeriosis can be obtained from a number of review articles (Kathariou 2002 Tompkin 2002) and book chapters (e.g., Ryser 1999). L. monocytogenes, including subtypes associated with human listeriosis cases and outbreaks, are not uncommon in natural, nonagricultural, and agricultural environments, including raw food commodities. Therefore, an understanding of L. monocytogenes ecology and survival in food-associated environments is critical for elucidating the transmission of human listeriosis and reducing human infections.
Some members of the Carrot Family are poisonous. Water hemlock (Fig. 24.22) and poison hemlock are common weeds in ditches and along streams. All parts of the plants are deadly, often having been fatal to unwary wild-food lovers. Socrates is believed to have died as a result of ingesting poison hemlock, which should not be confused with cone-bearing hemlock trees.
Caffeine is a plant alkaloid found not only in coffee beans but also in tea leaves and cola nuts. It works as a stimulant of the central nervous system and the respiratory system, as well as increasing heart rate and constricting blood vessels. As a stimulant, caffeine makes us more aware and alert and able to work without drowsiness. It is reported that coffee was discovered in the Near East (perhaps in Yemen) by goats, which became frisky and sleepless after eating the wild fruit. A shepherd is said to have located the shrub the goats had chewed and described it as a shrub with leaves like laurel, flowers like jasmine, and little dark berries the chief object of the animals' nibbling.
Enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea (TD) and has caused several foodborne outbreaks in the United States. There are an estimated 79,420 cases of ETEC in the United States each year. TD is characterized by a twofold or greater increase in the frequency of unformed bowel movements. Commonly associated symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea, bloating, urgency, fever, and malaise. Episodes of TD usually begin abruptly, occur during travel or soon after returning home, and are generally self-limiting. The most important determinant of risk is the destination of the traveler. Attack rates of 20-50 are commonly reported. High-risk destinations include most of the developing countries of Central America, Africa (south, central, east, west, and north), the Middle East, and Asia (east, southeast, and the Indian subcontinent). Intermediate-risk destinations include most of the southern European countries (east and west) and a few Caribbean islands. Low-risk...
Vegetarian diets are increasingly found among the pediatric and adolescent population as a growing number of Americans adopt this eating sty le. Plant-based diets have been show n to significantly lower rates of chronic diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers.1 While most adherents are motivated by health concerns, many families and individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for philosophic, religious, or environmental reasons. Such diets center around plant-based foods foods of animal origin. if consumed at all, play a minor role. Important distinctions between the different types of vegetarian diets practiced are shown in Table 10-1.
Avoid raw foods (undamaged fruits and vegetables from which the peel can be removed are safe if hygienically handled). Handle and prepare foods in a way that reduces the risk of contamination (e.g., cooked food and eating utensils should be kept separate from uncooked foods and potentially contaminated utensils).
Two-thirds of the adult population in the temperate zone carry antibodies to the Norwalk virus. SRSVare regularly implicated in minor epidemics and family outbreaks. The transmission route of the Norwalk virus has been described in addition to the fecal-oral route, water and uncooked foods are involved.