1. Aalamian M, Pirtskhalaishvili G, Nunez A, Esche C, Shurin GV, Huland E, Huland H, Shurin MR. Human prostate cancer inhibits maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Prostate, 46: 68-75, 2001.
2. Abrahams VM, Straszewski SL, Kamsteeg M, Hanczaruk B, Schwartz PE, Rutherford TJ, Mor G. Epithelial ovarian cancer cells secrete Fas ligand. Cancer Res., 63: 5573-5581, 2003.
3. Adriance MC, Gendler SJ. Downregulation of Mucl in MMTV-c-Neu tumors. Oncogene, 23(3): 697-705, 2004.
4. Aggarwal BB. Nuclear factor-KB: the enemy within. Cancer Cell, 6: 203-208, 2004.
5. Albers A, Schaefer C, Kirkwood JM, Gooding W, DeLeo AB, Whiteside TL. Spontaneous apoptosis of epitope-specific CD8+ tetramer+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral circulation of patients with cancer. Submitted, 2007.
6. Albers AE, Kim GG, Ferris RL, Chikamatsu K, DeLeo AB, Whiteside TL. Immune responses to p53 in patients with cancer enrichment in tetramer+ p53 peptide-specific T cells and regulatory CD4+ CD25+ cells at tumor sites. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 54: 1072-1081, 2005.
7. Albers AE, Visus C, Tsukishiro T, Ferris RL, Gooding, W, Whiteside TL, DeLeo AB. Alterations in the T-cell receptor variable ß gene-restricted profile of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral circulation of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res, 12: 2394-2403, 2006.
8. Alleva C, Berger C, Elgert K. Tumor-induced regulation of suppression macrophage nitric oxide and TNF-a production. Role of tumor-derived IL-10, TGF-ß and PGE2. J Immunol, 153:1674-1685, 1994.
9. Allison J, Georgiou HM, Strausser A, Vaux DL. Transgenic expression of CD95 ligand on islet beta cells induces a granulocytic infiltration but does not confer immune privilege upon islet allografts. PNAS USA, 94: 3943-3947, 1997.
10. Almand B, Clark JI, Nikitina E, et al. Increased production of immature myeloid cells in cancer patients: a mechanism of immunosuppression^ cancer. J Immunol, 166: 678-689, 2001.
11. Almand B, Resser JR, Lindman B, Nadaf S, Clark JI, Kwon ED, Carbone DP, Gabrilovich DI. Clinical significance of defective dendritic cell differentiation in cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 6: 1755-1766, 2000.
12. Andreola G, Rivoltini L, Castelli C, Huber V, Perego P, Deho P, Squarcina P, Accornero P, Lozupone F, Lugini L, Stringaro A, Molinari A, Arancia G, Gentile M, Parmiani G, Fais S. Induction of lymphocyte apoptosis by tumor cell secretion of FasL-bearing microvesicles. J Exp Med,, 195: 1303-1316, 2002.
13. Balkwill F, Mantovani A. Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet, 357: 539-545, 2001.
14. Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature, 392: 245252, 1998.
15. Baniyash M. Chronic inflammation, immunosuppression and cancer: novel insights and outlook. Sem Cancer Biol, 16: 80-88, 2006.
16. Battaglia M, Stabilini A, Migliavacca B, Horejs-Hoeck J, Kaupper T, Roncarolo MG. Rapamycin promotes expansion of functional CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells of both healthy subjects and type 1 diabetic patients. J Immunol, 177: 8338-8347, 2006.
17. Bauernhofer T, Kuss I, Henderson B, Baum AS, Whiteside TL. Preferential apoptosis of CD56dim natural killer cell subset in patients with cancer. Eur J Immunol, 33: 119-124, 2003.
18. Bergmann C, Strauss L, Zeidler R, Lang S, Whiteside TL. Expansion and characteristics of human T regulatory type 1 cells in co-cultures simulating tumor microenvironment. Cancer Immunol Immunother, In Press, 2007.
19. Bergmann C, Strauss L, Zeidler R, Lang S, Whiteside TL. Expansion of human T regulatory type 1 cells in the microenvironment of COX-2 overexpressing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Submitted, 2007.
20. Berke G. The CTL's kiss of death. Cell, 81: 9-11, 1995.
21. Bjerkvig R, Tysnes BB, Aboody KS, Najbauer J, Terzis AJA. The origin of the cancer stem cell: current controversies and new insights. Nat Cancer, 5: 899-904, 2005.
22. Bodmer JL, Holler N, Reynards S, Vinciguerra P, Schneider P, Juo P, Blenis J, Tschopp J. TRAIL receptor-2 signals apoptosis through FADD and caspase-8. Nat Cell Biol, 2: 241-243, 2000.
23. Bronte V, Serafini P, Mazzoni A, Segal D, Zanovello P. L-arginine metabolism in myeloid cells controls T lymphocyte functions. Trends Immunol, 6: 301-305, 2003.
24. Bukowski RM, Rayman P, Uzzo R, Bloom T, Sandstrom K, Peereboom D, Olencki T, Budd GT, McLain D, Elson P, Novick A, Finke JH. Signal transduction abnormalities in T lymphocytes from patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: clinical relevance and effects of cytokine therapy. Clin Cancer Res, 4: 2337-2347, 1998.
25. Campoli M, Chang G-C, Ferrone S. HLA-class I antigen loss, tumor immune escape and immune selection. Vaccine, 20: A40-A45, 2002.
26. Chang CC, Ciubotariu R, Manavalan JS, Yuan J, Colovai AI, Piazza F, Lederman S, Colonna M, Cortesini R, Dalla-Favera R, Suciu-Foca N. Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4. Nat Immunol, 3: 237-243, 2002.
27. Chaput N, Taieb J, Schartz N, Flament C, Novault S, Andre F, Zitvogel L. The potential of exosomes in immunotherapy of cancer. Blood Cells Mol Dis, 35: 111-115, 2005.
28. Chen YL, Chen SH, Wang JY, Yang BC. Fas ligand on tumor cells mediates inactivation of neutrophils. J Immunol, 171:1183-1191, 2003.
29. Cianciolo GJ, Copeland TD, Oroszlan S, Snyderman R. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by a synthetic peptide homologous to retroviral envelope proteins. Science, 230:453-455, 1985.
30. Ciccinnati VR, Dworacki G, Albers A, Beckebaum S, Tuting T, Daczmarek E, DeLeo AB. Impact of p53-based immunization on primary chemically-induced tumors. Int J Cancer, 113: 961-970, 2005.
31. Curiel TJ, Coukos G, Zou L, Alvarez X, Cheng P, Mottram P, Evdemon-Hogan M, Conejo-Garcia JR, Zhang L, Burow M, Zhu Y, Wei S, Kryczek I, Daniel B, Gordon A, Myers L, Lackner A, Disis ML, Knutson KL, Chen L, Zou W. Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune privilege and predicts reduced survival. Nat Med,10: 942-949, 2004.
32. Degli-Esposti MA, Smyth MJ. Close encounters of different kinds: dendritic cells and NK cells take centre stage. Nat Immunol, 5: 112-124, 2005.
33. DeLeo AB. p53-based immunotherapy of cancer. In: Teicher B (ed). Cancer Drug Discovery and Development, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 491-505, 2005.
34. DeMaria R, Lenti L, Malisan F, d'Agostino F, Tomassini B, Zeuner A, Rippo MR, Testi R. Requirement for GD3 ganglioside in CD95-and ceramide-induced apoptosis. Science, 277:1652-1655, 1997.
35. Dieckmann D, Plottner H, Berchtold S, Berger T, Schuler G. Ex vivo isolation and characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties from human blood. J Exp Med,193: 1303-1310, 2001.
36. Dranoff G, Jaffee E, Lazenby A, Golumbek P, Levitsky H, Brose K, Jackson V, Hamada H, Pardoll D, Mulligan RC. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90: 3539-3543, 1993.
37. Esche C, Lokshin A, Shurin G, Gastman BR, Rabinovich H, Lotze MT, Shurin MR. Tumors' other immune targets: Dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol, 66: 336-344, 1999.
38. Esche C, Shurin GV, Kirkwood JM, Wang GQ, Rabinowich H, Pirtskhalaishvili G, Shurin MR. TNF-a-promoted expression of Bcl-2 and inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release mediated resistance of mature dendritic cells to melanoma-induced apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res, 7: 974s-979s, 2001.
39. Faria AM, Weiner H. Oral tolerance and TGF-beta-producing cells. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets, 5: 179-190, 2006.
40. Ferguson TA, Green DR. Fas ligand and immune privilege: the eyes have it. Cell Death Differ, 8: 771-772, 2001.
41. Ferris RL, Hunt JL, Ferrone S. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I defects in head and neck cancer: molecular mechanisms and clinical significance. Immunol Res, 33: 113-133, 2005.
42. Ferris RL, Whiteside TL, Ferrone S. Immune escape associated with functional defects in antigen processing machinery in head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 12: 3890-3895, 2006.
43. Finke JH, Zea AH, Stanley J, Longo DL, Mizoguchi H, Tubbs RR, Wiltrout RH, O'Shea JJ, Kudous, Klein E, Bukowski RM, Ochoa A. Loss of T-cell receptor Z chain and p56lck in T-cell infiltrating human renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Res, 53: 5613-5616, 1993.
44. Gabrilovich D, Ishida T, Oyama T, Ran S, Kravtsov V, Nadaf S, Carbone DP. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits the development of dendritic cells and dramatically affects the differentiation of multiple hematopoietic lineages in vivo. Blood, 92: 4150-4166, 1998.
45. Gabrilovich DI. Mechanisms and functional significance of tumor-induced dendritic cell differentiation in cancer. Nat Rev Immunol, 4: 941-952, 2004.
46. Gabrilovich DI, Chen HL, Girgis KR, Cunningham T, Meny GM, Nadaf S, Kavanaugh D, Carbone DP. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human tumors inhibits the functional maturation of dendritic cells. Nature Med, 2: 1096-1103, 1996.
47. Gattinoni L, Powell DJ Jr, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: building on success. Nat Rev Immunol, 6: 383-393, 2006.
48. Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, Park JM, Li ZW, Egan LJ, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell, 118: 285-96, 2004.
49. Griffith TS, Brunner T, Fletcher SM, Green DR, Ferguson TA. Fas ligand-induced apoptosis as a mechanism of immune privilege. Science, 270: 1189-1192, 1995.
50. Groux H, Bigler M, de Vries JE, Roncarolo MG. Interleukin-10 induces a long-term antigen-specific anergic state in human CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med, 184: 19-29, 1996.
51. Haefner B. The transcription factor NF-kB as drug target. Prog Med Chem, 43: 137-188, 2005.
52. Hahne M, Rimoldi D, Schroter M, Romero P, Schreier LE, French P, Schneider T, Bornand A, Fontana A, Lienard D, Cerottini J-C, Tschopp J. Melanoma cell expression of Fas (Apo-1/ CD95) ligand: Implications for tumor immune escape. Science, 274: 1363-1366, 1996.
53. Hamerman JA, Ogasawara K, Lanier LL. NK cells in innate immunity. Curr Opin Immunol, 17: 29-35, 2005.
54. Haraguchi S, Good RA, James-Yarish M, Cianciolo GJ, Day NK. Differential modulation of Th1- and Th2-related cytokine mRNA expression by a synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved domain within retroviral envelope protein. Immunology, 92: 3611-3615, 1995.
55. Hoffmann TK, Donnenberg AD, Finkelstein SD, Donnenberg VS, Friebe-Hoffmann F, Myers EN, Appella E, DeLeo AB, Whiteside TL. Frequencies of tetramer+ T cells specific for the wild-type sequence p53 peptide in the circulations of patients with head and neck cancer. Cancer Res, 62: 3521-3529, 2002.
56. Hoffmann TK, Dworacki G, Meidenbauer N, Gooding W, Johnson JT, Whiteside TL. Spontaneous apoptosis of circulating T lymphocytes in patients with head and neck cancer and its clinical importance. Clin Cancer Res, 8: 2553-2562, 2002.
57. Hoffmann TK, Muller-Berghaus J, Ferris RL, Johnson JT, Storkus WJ, Whiteside TL. Alterations in the frequency of dendritic cell subsets in the peripheral circulation of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res, 8: 1787-1793, 2002.
58. Hoffmann TK, Nakano K, Elder E. Dworacki G, Finkelstein SD, Apella E, Whiteside TL and DeLeo AB. Generation of T cells specific for the wild-type sequence p5 3 264-272 peptide in cancer patients - implication for immunoselection of epitope-loss variants. J Immunol, 165: 5938-5944, 2000.
59. Houghton AN, Guevara-Patino JA. Immune recognition of self in immunity against cancer. J Clin Invest, 114: 468-471, 2004.
60. Huff CA, Matsui WH, Douglas Smith B, Jones RJ. Strategies to eliminate cancer stem cells: Clinical implications. Eur J Cancer, In Press, 2006.
61. Iwai Y, Ishida M, Tanaka Y, Okazaki T, Honjo T, Minato N. Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape fromhost immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99: 12293-12297, 2002.
62. Jaeger E, Bernahrd H, Romero P, Ringhoffer M, Arand M, Karbach J, Ilsemann C, Hagedorn M, Knuth A. Generation of cytotoxic T-cell responses with synthetic peptides in vivo: implications for tumor vaccines with melanoma-associated antigens. Int J Cancer, 66:162-169, 1996.
63. Jaeger E, Ringhoffer M, Dienes HP, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor enhances immune responses to melanoma-associated peptides. Int J Cancer, 67: 54-62, 1996.
64. Jonuleit H, Schmitt E, Schuler G, Knop J, Enk AH. Induction of interleukin 10-producing, nonproliferating CD4(+) T cells with regulatory properties by repetitive stimulation with allo-geneic immature human dendritic cells. J Exp Med, 192: 1213-1222, 2000.
65. Katsenelson NS, Shurin GV, Bykovskaia SN, Shogan J, Shurin MR. Human small cell lung carcinoma and carcinoid tumor regulate dendritic cell maturation and function. Modern Path, 14: 40-45, 2001.
66. Keane MM, Ettenberg SA, Lowrey GA, Russell EK, Lipkowitz S. Fas expression and function in normal and malignant breast cell lines. Cancer Res, 56: 4791-4798, 1996.
67. Khong HT, Wang QJ, Rosenberg SA. Identifications of multiple antigens recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes form a single patient: tumor escape by antigen loss and loss of MHC expression. J Immunother, 27: 184-190, 2004.
68. Kim J-W, Ferris RL, Whiteside TL. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression and protection of circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes from apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res, 11: 7901-7910, 2005.
69. Kim, J-W, Tsukishiro, T, Johnson JT, Whiteside TL. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in circulating CD8+ T cells of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Clin Cancer Res, 10: 5101-5110, 2004.
70. Kim J-W, Wieckowski E, Taylor DD, Reichert TE, Watkins S, Whiteside TL. FasL+ membraneous vesicles isolated from sera of patients with oral cancer induce apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes. Clin Cancer Res, 11: 1010-1020, 2005.
71. Kreuz S, Siegmund D, Rumpf J-J, Samel D, Leverkus M, Janssen O, Hacker G, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Scheurich P, Wayant H. NFkB activation by Fas is mediated through FADD, caspase-8, and RIP and is inhibited by FLIP. J Cell Biol, 166: 369-380, 2004.
72. Kuss I, Saito T, Johnson JT, Whiteside TL. Clinical significance of decreased zeta chain expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 5: 329-334, 1999.
73. Kuss I, Hathaway B, Ferris RL, Gooding W, Whiteside TL. Decreased absolute counts of T lymphocyte subsets and their relation to disease in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res, 10: 3755-3762, 2004.
74. Kuss I, Schaefer C, Godfrey TE, Ferris RL, Harris J, Gooding W, Whiteside TL. Recent thymic emigrants and subsets of naive and memory T cells in the circulation of patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Immunol, 116: 27-36, 2005.
75. Lang S, Atarashi Y, Nishioka Y, Stanson J, Meidenbauer N, Whiteside TL. B7.1 on human carcinomas: costimulation of T cells and enhanced tumor-induced cell death. Cell Immunol, 201: 132-143, 2000.
76. Lanier LL. NK cell recognition. Annu Rev Immunol, 23: 225-274, 2005.
77. Lee J-C, Lee K-M, Kim D-W, Heo SD. Elevated TGF-ß1 secretion and down-modulation of NK62D underlies impaired NK cytotoxicity in cancer patients. J Immunol, 172: 7335-7340, 2004.
78. Lenardo M, Chan KM, Hornung F, McFarland H, Siegel R, Wang J, Zheng L. Mature T lymphocyte apoptosis- immune regulation in a dynamic and unpredictable antigen environment. Annu Rev Immunol, 17: 221-253, 1999.
79. Levings MK, Roncarolo MG. Phenotypic and functional differences between human CD4+ CD25+ and type 1 regulatory T cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 293: 303-326, 2005.
80. Levings MK, Sangregorio R, Galbiati F, Squadrone R, deWaal Malefyt R, Roncarolo MG. IFN-alpha and IL-10 induce differentiation of human type 1 T regulatory cells. J Immunol,166: 5530-5539, 2001.
81. Levings MK, Sangregorio R, Sartirana C, Moschin AL, Battaglia M, Orban PC, Roncarolo MG. Human CD25+ CD4+ T suppressor cell clones produce transforming growth factor beta, but not interleukin 10, and are distinct from type 1 T regulatory cells. J Exp Med,196: 13351346, 2002.
82. Li X, Liu J, Park J-K, Hamilton TA, Rayman P, Klein E, Edinger M, Tubbs RR, Bukowski R, Finke J. T cells from renal cell carcinoma patients exhibit an abnormal pattern of NFkB specific DNA binding activity. Cancer Res, 54: 5424-5429, 1994.
83. Li Q, Withoff S, Verma IM. Inflammation-associated cancer: NF-kB is the lynchpin. Trends Immunol, 26: 318-325, 2005.
84. Liyanage UK, Moore TT, Joo H-G, Tanaka Y, Herrmann V, Doherty G, Drebin JA, Strasberg SM, Eberlein TJ, Goedegebuure PS, Linehan DC. Prevalence of regulatory T cells is increased in peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment of patients with pancreas or breast adenocarcinoma. J Immunol, 169: 2756-2761, 2002.
85. Ljunggren HG, Karre K. In search of the "missing self': MHC molecules and NK recognition. Immunol Today, 11: 237-244, 1990.
86. Lopez CB, Rao TD, Feiner H, Shapiro R, Marks JR, and Frey AB. Repression of interleukin-2 mRNA translation in primary human breast carcinoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Cell Immunol, 190:141-155, 1998.
87. Lopez-Albaitero A, Nayak JV, Ogino T, Machandia A, Gooding W, DeLeo AB, Ferrone S, Ferris RL. Role of antigen-processing machinery in the in vitro resistance of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cells to recognition by CTL. J Immunol, 176: 3402-3409, 2006.
88. Lotze MT, DeMarco RA. Dying dangerously: necrotic cell death and chronic inflammation promote tumor growth. Discovery Med, 4: 448-456, 2004.
89. Luo JL, Maeda S, Hsu LC, Yagita H, Karin M. Inhibition of NF-kappa B in cancer cells converts inflammation-induced tumor growth mediated by TNF alpha to TRAIL-mediated tumor regression. Cancer Cell, 6: 297-305, 2004.
90. Lybarger L, Wang X, Harris M, Hansen TH. Viral immune evasion molecules attack the ER peptide-loading complex and exploit ER-associated degradation pathways. Curr Opin Immunol, 17: 71-78, 2005.
91. Mabjeesh NJ, Amir S. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in human tumorigenesis. Histol Histopathol, 22: 559-572, 2007.
92. Malmberg K-J, Ljunggren H-G. Escape from immune and non-immune tumor surveillance. Sem Cancer Biol, 16: 16-31, 2006.
93. Mann B, Gratchev A, Bohm C, Hanski ML, Foss HD, Demel G, Trojanek B, Schmidt-Wolf I, Stein H, Riecken EO, Buhr HJ, Hanski C. FasL is more frequently expressed in liver metastases of colorectal cancer than in matched primary carcinomas. Br J Cancer, 79: 1262-1269, 1999.
94. Mantovani A, Bottazzi B, Colotta F, Sozzani S, Ruco L. The origin and function of tumor-associated macrophages. Immunol Today, 13: 265-270, 1992.
95. Mantovani A. Tumor-associated macrophages in neoplastic progression: a paradigm for the in vivo function of chemokines. Lab Invest, 71: 5-16, 1994.
96. Marchand M, Weynants P, Rankin E, Arienti F, Belli F, Parmiani G, Cascinelli N, Bourlond A, Vanwijck R, Humblet Y, et al. Tumor regression responses in melanoma patients treated with a peptide encoded by gene MAGE-3. Int J Cancer, 63: 883-885, 1995.
97. Martinez-Lorenzo MJ, Alva MA, Gamen S, Kim KJ, Chuntharapai A, Pineiro A, Naval J, Anel A. Involvement of APO2 ligand/TRAIL in activation-induced death of Jurkat and human peripheral blood T cells. Eur J Immunol, 28: 2714-2725, 1998.
98. Matsuda M, Petersson M, Lenkei R, Raupin J-L, Magnusson I, Mellstedt H, Anderson P, Kiessling R. Alterations in the signal-transducing molecules of T cells and NK cells in color-ectal tumor-infiltrating gut mucosal and peripheral lymphocytes: correlation with the stage of the disease. Int J Cancer, 61: 765-772, 1995.
99. Mayordomo JI, Loftus DJ, Sakamoto H, Lotze MT, Storkus WJ, Appella E, DeLeo AB. Therapy of murine tumors with dendritic cells pulsed with p53 wild type and mutant sequence peptides. J Exp Med, 183: 1357-1365, 1996.
100. McCawley LJ, Martisian LM. Tumor progression: defining the soil round the tumor seed. Curr Biol, 11: R25-R27, 2001.
101. Medema JP, de Jong J, van Hall T, Melief CJ, Offringa R. Immune escape of tumors in vivo by expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. J Exp Med, 190: 1033-1038, 1999.
102. Micheau O, Tschopp J. Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes. Cell, 114: 181-190, 2003.
103. Miwa K, Asano M, Horai R, Lwakura Y, Nagata S, Suda T. Caspase 1-independent IL-1 beta release and inflammation induced by the apoptosis inducer Fas ligand. Nat Med, 4: 12871292, 1998.
104. Mizoguchi H, O'Shea JJ, Longo DL, Loeffler CM, McVicar DW, Ochoa A. Alterations in signal transduction molecules in T lymphocytes from tumor bearing mice. Science, 258: 1795-1798, 1992.
105. Mocellin S, Ohnmacht GA, Wang E, Marincola FM. Kinetics of cytokine expression in melanoma metastases classifies immune responsiveness. Int J Cancer, 93: 236-242, 2001.
Morisaki T, Matsumoto K, Onishi H, Kuroki H, Baba E, Tasaki A, Kubo M, Nakamura M, Inaba S, Yamaguchi K, Tanaka M, Katano M. Dendritic cell-based combined immunotherapy with autologous tumor-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine and activated T cells for cancer patients: rationale, current progress, and perspectives. Hum Cell, 16: 175-182, 2003. Munn DH. Indoleamine 2.3 dioxygenase, tumor-induced tolerance and counter-regulation. Curr Opin Immunol, 18: 220-225, 2006.
Nagata S, Goldstein P. The Fas death factor. Science, 267: 1449-1456, 1995. Natali PG, Bigotti A, Nicotra MR, Viora M, Manfredi D, Ferrone S. Distribution of human class I (HLA-A,-B,-C) histocompatibility antigens in normal and malignant tissues of non-lymphoid origin. Cancer Res, 44: 4679-4687, 1984.
Ng WF, Duggan PJ, Ponchel F, Matarese G, Lombardi G, Edwards AD, Isaacs JD, Lechler RI. Human CD4(+)CD25(+) cells: a naturally occurring population of regulatory T cells. Blood, 98: 2736-2744, 2001.
Niehans GA, Brunner T, Frizelle SP, Liston JC, Salerno CT, Kanpp DJ, Green DR, Kratzke RA. Human lung carcinomas express Fas ligand. Cancer Res, 57: 1007-1012, 1997. O'Connell J, Bennett MW, O'Sullivan GC, Collins JK, Shanahan F. The Fas counterattack: a molecular mechanism of tumor immune privilege. Mol Med, 3: 294-300, 1997. O'Connell J, O'Sullivan GC, Collins JK, Shanahan F. The Fas counterattack: Fas-mediated T cell killing by colon cancer cells expressing Fas ligand. J Exp Med, 184: 1075-1082, 1996.
Ogino T, Bandoh N, Hayashi T, Miyokawa N, Harabuchi Y, Ferrone S. Association of tapa-sin and HLA class I antigen down-regulation in primary maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma lesions with reduced survival of patients. Clin Cancer Res, 9: 4043-4051, 2003. Okazaki T, Honjo T. The PD-1-PD-L pathway in immunological tolerance. Trends Immunol, 27: 195-201, 2006.
Pak AS, Wright MA, Matthews JP, Collins SL, Petruzzelli GJ, Young MR. Mechanisms of immune suppression in patients with head and neck cancer: presence of CD34+ cells which suppress immune functions within cancers that secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Clin Cancer Res, 1: 95-103, 1995.
Parmiani G, Castelli C, Dalerba P, Mortarini R, Rivoltini L, Marincola RM, Anichini A. Cancer immunotherapy with peptide-based vaccines: what have we achieved: where are we going? J Nat Cancer Inst, 94: 805-818, 2002.
Parry RV, Chemnitz JM, Frauwieth KA, Lanfranco AR, Braunstein I, Kobayashi SV, Linsley PS, Thompson CB, Riley JL. CTLA-4 and PD-1 receptors inhibit T-cell activation by distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol, 25: 9543-9553, 2005.
Perkins ND. NF-kB: tumor promoter or suppressor? Trends Cell Biol, 14: 64-69, 2004. Peter ME, Krammer PH. The CD95(APO-1/Fas) DISC and beyond. Cell Death Differ, 10: 26-35, 2003.
Piali L, Fichtel A, Terpe H-J, Imhof BA, Gisler RH. Endothelial vascular adhesion molecule 1 expression is suppressed by melanoma and carcinoma. J Exp Med, 181: 811-816, 1995. Pikarsky E, Porat RM, Stein I, Abramovitch R, Amit S, Kasem S, Gutkovich-Pyest E, Urieli-Shoval S, Galun E, Ben-Neriah Y. NF-KappaB functions as tumour promoter in inflammation-associated cancer. Nature, 431: 461-466, 2004.
Pirtskhalaishvili G, Gambotto A, Esche C, Yurkovetsky ZR, Lotze MT, Shurin MR. IL-12 and Bcl-xl gene transfection of murine dendritic cells protects them from prostate cancer-induced apoptosis and improves their antitumor activity. J Urol, 163: 105, 2000. Pirtskhalaishvili G, Shurin GV, Esche C, Salup RR, Lotze MT, Shurin MR. Cytokine-medi-ated protection of human dendritic cells from prostate cancer-induced apoptosis is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Br J Cancer, 83: 506-513, 2000.
Pittet MJ, Valmori D, Dunbar PR, Speiser DE, Lienard D, Lejeune F, Fleischhauer K, Cerundolo V, Cerottine JC, Romero P. High frequencies of naïve Melan-A/MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a large proportion of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen HLA-A2 individuals. J Exp Med, 190: 705-715, 1999.
126. Poggi A, Massaro AM, Negrini S, Contini P, Zocchi MR. Tumor-induced apoptosis of human IL-2 activated NK cells: role of natural cytotoxicity receptors. J Immunol, 174: 2653-60, 2005.
127. Rabinowich H, Vitolo D, Altarac S, Herberman RB, Whiteside TL. Role of cytokines in the adoptive immunotherapy of an experimental model of human head and neck cancer by human IL-2-activated natural killer cells. J Immunol, 149: 340-349, 1992.
128. Rabinowich H, Suminami Y, Reichert TE, Crowley-Nowick P, Bell M, Edwards R, Whiteside TL. Expression of cytokine genes or proteins and signaling molecules in lymphocytes associated with human ovarian carcinoma. Int J Cancer, 68: 276-284, 1996.
129. Rabinowich H, Reichert TE, Kashii Y, Bell MC, Whiteside TL. Lymphocyte apoptosis induced by Fas ligand-expressing ovarian carcinoma cells: implications for altered expression of TcR in tumor-associated lymphocytes. J Clin Invest, 101: 2579-2588, 1998.
130. Reichert TE, Rabinowich H, Johnson JT, Whiteside TL. Human immune cells in the tumor microenvironment: mechanisms responsible for signaling and functional defects. J Immunother, 21: 295-306, 1998.
131. Reichert TE, Strauss L, Wagner EM, Gooding W, Whiteside TL. Signaling abnormalities and reduced proliferation of circulating and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with oral carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res, 8: 3137-3145, 2002.
132. Reichert TE, Day R, Wagner E, Whiteside TL. Absent or low expression of the Z chain in T cells at the tumor site correlates with poor survival in patients with oral carcinoma. Cancer Res, 58: 5344-5347, 1998.
133. Renkvist N, Castelli C, Robbins PF, Parmiani G. A listing of human tumor antigens recognized by T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 50: 51-59, 2001.
134. Rivoltini L, Canese P, Huber V, Iero M, Pilla L, Valenti R, Fais S, Lozupone F, Casati C, Castelli C, Parmiani G. Escape strategies and reasons for failure in the interaction between tumor cells and immune system: how can we tilt the balance towards immune-mediated cancer control. Exp Opin Biol Ther, 5: 463-476, 2005.
135. Rivoltini L, Carrabba M, Huber V, Castelli C, Novellino L, Dalerba P, Mortarini R, Arancia G, Anichini A, Fais S, Parmiani G. Immunity to cancer: attack and escape in T lymphocyte-tumor cell interaction. Immunol Rev, 188: 97-113, 2002.
136. Rodriguez PC, Ochoa AC. T cell dysfunction in cancer: Role of myeloid cells and tumor cells regulating amino acit availability and oxidative stress. Sem Cancer Biol, 16: 66-72, 2006.
137. Rosenberg SA, Yang JC, Restifo NP. Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines. Nat Med, 10: 909-915, 2004.
138. Sahin U, Turecio P, Pfzeundschuch M. Serological identification of human tumor antigens. Curr Opin Immunol, 9: 709-716, 1997.
139. Saito T, Dworacki G, Gooding W, Lotze M, Whiteside TL. Mononuclear cells undergo spontaneous ex vivo apoptosis in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res, 6: 1351-1364, 2000.
140. Saito T, Kuss I, Dworacki G, Gooding W, Johnson JT, Whiteside TL. Spontaneous ex vivo apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 5: 1263-1273, 1999.
141. Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Shimizu J, Yamazaki S, Sakihama T, Itoh M, Kuniyasu Y, Nomura T, Toda M, Takahashi T. Immunologic tolerance maintained by CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells: their common role in controlling autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and transplantation tolerance. Immunol Rev, 182: 18-32, 2001.
142. Schaefer C, Kim GG, Albers A, Hoermann K, Myers EN, Whiteside TL. Characteristics of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the peripheral circulation of patients with head and neck cancer. Br J Cancer, 92: 913-920, 2005.
143. Semenza GL. HIF-1 and tumor progression: pathophysiology and therapeutics. Trends Mol Med, 8: S62-S67, 2002.
144. Serafini P, Borello J, Bronte V. Myeloid suppressor cells in cancer: recruitment, phenotype, properties and mechanisms of immune suppression. Sem Cancer Biol, 16: 53-65, 2006.
145. Serafini P, DeSanto C, Mango I, Cingarlini S, Dolcetti L, Gallina G, Zanovello P, Bronte V. Derangement of immune responses by myeloid suppressor cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 53: 64-72, 2004.
146. Shevach EM. Fatal attraction: tumors beckon regulatory T cells. Nat Med,10: 900-901, 2004.
147. Shevach EM. CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T cells: more questions than answers. Nat Rev Immunol, 2: 389-400, 2002.
148. Shevach EM. Regulatory T cells in autoimmmunity. Annu Rev Immunol, 18: 423-449, 2000.
149. Shurin GV, Shurin MR, Lotze MT, Barksdale EM. Gangliosides mediate neuroblastoma-induced inhibition of dendritic cell generation. Cancer Res, 61: 363-369, 2001.
150. Shurin MR, Esche C, Lokshin A, Lotze MT. Tumors induce apoptosis of dendritic cells in vitro. J Immunother, 20: 403, 1997.
151. Shurin MR, Gabrilovich DI. Regulation of dendritic cell system by tumor. Cancer Res Ther Control, 11: 65-78, 2001.
152. Siegel PM, Massague J. Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-ß in homeostasis and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer, 3: 807-821, 2003.
153. Singh SK, Clarke ID, Hide T, Dirks PB. Cancer stem cells in nervous system tumors. Oncogene, 23: 7267-7273, 2004.
154. Sitkovsky M, Lukashev D. Regulation of immune cells by local-tissue oxygen tension: HIF1 alpha and adenosine receptors. Nat Rev Immunol, 5: 712-721, 2005.
155. Smyth MJ, Godfrey DI, Trapani JA. A fresh look at tumor immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. Nat Immunol, 6: 17-21, 2001.
156. Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and immune-based therapies. Exp Hematol, 24: 859-862, 1996.
157. Strand S, Vollmer P, Van den Abeelen L, Gottfried D, Alla V, Heid H, Kuball J, Theobald M, Galle PR, Strand D. Cleavage of CD95 by matrix metaboproteinase-7 induces apoptosis resistance in tumour cells. Oncogene, 23: 3732-3736, 2004.
158. Strauss L, Bergmann C, Szczepanski M, Gooding W, Johnson TJ, Whiteside TL. A unique subset of CD4+ CD25hJBhFoxp3+ T cells secreting IL-10 and TGF-ß1 mediates suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res, In Press, 2007.
159. Strauss L, Whiteside TL, Knights A, Bergmann C, Knuth A, Zippelius A. Selective expansion of naturally occurring human CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells with rapamycin in vitro. J Immunol, 178: 320-329, 2006.
160. Suda T, Okazaki T, Naito Y, Yokota T, Arai N, Ozaki S, Nakao K, Nagata S. Expression of the Fas Ligand in cells of T-cell lineage. J Immunol, 154: 3806-3813, 1995.
161. Taieb J, Chaput N, Zitvogel L. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes as cell-free peptide-based vaccines. Crit Rev Immunol, 25: 215-223, 2005.
162. Takeda K, Smyth MJ, Cretney E, Hayakawa Y, Yamaguchi N, Yagita H, Okumura K. Involvement of tumor necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in NK-cell mediated and IFN-gamma-dependent suppression of subcutaneous tumor growth. Cell Immunol, 214: 194-200, 2001.
163. Taylor DD, Gercel-Taylor C, Lyons KS, Stanson J, Whiteside TL. T-cell apoptosis and suppression of T-cell receptor/CD3-Z by Fas Ligand-containing membrane vesicles shed from ovarian tumors. Clin Cancer Res, 9: 5113-5119, 2003.
164. Taylor PA, Lees CJ, Blazar BR. The infusion of ex vivo activated and expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) immune regulatory cells inhibits graft-versus-host disease lethality. Blood, 99: 3493-3499, 2002.
165. Taylor PA, Lees CJ, Fournier S, Allison JP, Sharpe AH, Blazar BR. B7 expression on T cells down-regulates immune responses through CTLA-4 ligation via T-T interactions. J Immunol, 172: 34-39, 2004.
166. Taylor PA, Noelle RJ, Blazar BR. CD4(+)CD25(+) immune regulatory cells are required for induction of tolerance to alloantigen via costimulatory blockade. J Exp Med, 193: 13111318, 2001.
167. Thompson RH, Gillett MD, Cheville JC, Lohse CM, Dong H, Webster WS, Krejci KG, Lobo JR, Sengupta S, Chen L, Zincke H, Blute ML, Strome SE, Leibovich BC, Kwon ED. Costimulatory B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma patients: Indicator of tumor aggressiveness and potential therapeutic target. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101: 17174-17179, 2004.
168. Tourkova IL, Shurin GV, Chatta GS, Periz L, Whiteside TL, Ferrone S, Shurin MR. Restoration by IL-15 of MHC class I antigen processing machinery in human dendritic cells inhibited by tumor-derived gangliosides. J Immunol, 175: 3045-3052, 2005.
169. Tsukishiro T, Donnenberg AD, Whiteside TL. Rapid turnover of the CD8+ CD28- T-cell subset of effector cells in the circulation of patients with head and neck cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 52: 599-607, 2003.
170. Uotila P. The role of cyclic AMP and oxygen intermediates in the inhibititon of cellular immunity in cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 43: 1-9, 1996.
171. Uzzo R, Rayman P, Kolenko V, Clark PE, Cathcart MK, Bloom T, Novick AC, Bukowski RM, Hamilton T, Finke JH. Renal cell carcinoma-derived gangliosides suppress nuclear factor-KB activation in T cells. J Clin Invest, 104: 769-776, 1999.
172. Uzzo RG, Clark PE, Rayman P, Bloom T, Rybicki, Novick A, Bukowski R, Finke J. Evidence that tumor inhibits NFKB activation in T lymphocytes of patients with renal cell carcinoma. JNCI, 91: 718-721, 1999.
173. Valenti R, Huber V, Filipazzi P, Pilla L, Sovena G, Villa A, Corbelli A, Fais S, Parmiani G, Rivoltini L. Human tumor-release microvesicles promote the differentiation of myeloid cells with transforming growth factor-beta-mediated suppressive activity on T lymphocytes. Cancer Res, 66: 9290-9298, 2006.
174. Valmori D, Dutoit V, Schnuriger V, Quiquerez AL, Pittet MJ, Guillaume P, Rubio-Godoy V, Walker PR, Rimoldi D, Lienard D, Cerottini JC, Romero P, Dietrich PY. Vaccination with a Melan-A peptide selects an oligoclonal T cell population with increased functional avidity and tumor reactivity. J Immunol, 168: 4231-4240, 2002.
175. Van den Broek ME, Kagi D, Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H. Perforin dependence of natural killer cell-mediated tumor control in vivo. Eur J Immunol, 25: 3514-3525, 1995.
176. Van der Merve PA, Davis SJ. Molecular interactions mediating T cell antigen recognition. Annu Rev Immunol, 21: 659-684, 2003.
177. Van Parijs L, Ibrahimov A, Abbas AK. The roles of costimulation and Fas in T cell apoptosis and peripheral tolerance. Immunity, 93: 951-955, 1996.
178. Vieweg J, Su Z, Dahm P, Kusmartsev S. Reversal of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Clin Cancer Res, 13: 727s-732s, 2007.
179. Von Herrath MG, Harrison LC. Regulatory Lymphocytes: Antigen-induced regulatory T cells in autoimmunity. Nat Rev Immunol, 3: 223-232, 2003.
180. Vujanovic NL. Role of TNF family ligands in antitumor activity of natural killer cells. Int Rev Immunol, 20: 415-437, 2001.
181. Wajant H. CD95/FasL and TRAIL in tumour surveillance and cancer therapy. In: Dalgleish, A.G., Haefner, B. (eds). The Link Between Inflammation and Cancer. Springer, New York, pp. 141-166, 2006.
182. Wakkach A, Cottrez F, Groux H. Differentiation of regulatory T cells 1 is induced by CD2 costimulation. J Immunol, 167: 3107-3113, 2001.
183. Wang HY, Lee DA, Peng G. Tumor-specific human CD4+ regulatory T cells and their lig-ands: implications for immunotherapy. Immunity, 20: 107-118, 2004.
184. Whiteside TL, Campoli M, Ferrone S. Tumor induced immune suppression and immune escape: mechanisms and possible solutions. In: Nagorsen E, Marincola F (eds). Analyzing T Cell Responses. Springer, pp. 43-82, 2005.
185. Whiteside TL, Herberman RB. The role of natural killer cells in immune surveillance of cancer. Curr Opin Immunol, 7: 704-710, 1995.
186. Whiteside TL, Odoux C. Dendritic cell biology and cancer therapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 53: 240-248, 2004.
187. Whiteside TL, Parmiani G. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes: their phenotype, function and clinical use. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 39: 15-21, 1994.
188. Whiteside TL, Rabinowich H. The role of Fas/FasL in immunosuppression induced by human tumors. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 46: 175-184, 1998.
189. Whiteside TL, Stanson J, Shurin MR, Ferrone S. Antigen processing machinery (APM) in human dendritic cells: up-regulation by maturation and down-regulation by tumor cells. J Immunol, 173: 1526-1534, 2004.
190. Whiteside TL. Apoptosis of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral circulation of patients with cancer: implications for immunotherapy. Vaccine, 20: A46-A51, 2002.
191. Whiteside TL. Immune responses to malignancies. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 111: S677-S686, 2003.
192. Whiteside TL. Signaling defects in T lymphocytes of patients with malignancy. Symposium-in-writing. Cancer Immunol Immunother, 48: 346-352, 1999.
193. Whiteside TL. The role of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Treat Res, 130: 103-124, 2006.
194. Whiteside TL. Tumor-induced death of immune cells: its mechanisms and consequences. Sem Cancer Biol, 12: 43-50, 2002.
195. Whiteside TL. Down-regulation of Z chain expression in T cells: A biomarker of prognosis in cancer? Cancer Immunol Immunother, 53: 865-876, 2004.
196. Whiteside TL. Exosomes in cancer and their role in tumor escape. In: Kasid Notario U, Haimovitz-Friedman Bar-Eli A (eds). Recent Developments in Cancer Research. , Research Signpost, In Press, 2007.
197. Whiteside TL. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as antitumor effector cells. Biotherapy 5: 4761, 1992.
198. Whiteside TL. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Human Malignancies. R.G. Landes, Austin, TX, 1993.
199. Whiteside TL. The role of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. In: Dalgleish AG, Haefner B (eds). The Link Between Inflammation and Cancer: Wounds That Do Not Heal. Springer, pp. 103-124, 2006.
200. Whiteside TL. Immune suppression in cancer: effects on immune cells, mechanisms and future therapeutic intervention. Sem Cancer Biol, 16: 3-15, 2006.
201. Whiteside TL. The role of death receptor ligands in shaping tumor microenvironment. Immunol Invest, 36: 25-46, 2007.
202. Wicha MS, Liu S, Dontu G. Cancer stem cells: an old idea-a paradigm shift. Cancer Res, 66: 1883-1890, 2006.
203. Wieckowski E, Atarashi Y, Stanson J, Sato T-A, Whiteside TL. FAP-1-mediated activation of NF-kB induces resistance of head and neck cancer to Fas-induced apoptosis. J Cell Biochem, 100: 16-28, 2007.
204. Wieckowski E, Whiteside TL. Human tumor-derived vs. dendritic cell-driven exosomes have distinct biologic roles and molecular profiles. Immunol Res, 36: 247-254, 2006.
205. Woo EY, Chu CS, Goletz TJ, Schlienger K, Yeh H, Coukos G, Rubin SC, Kaiser LR, June CH. Regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in tumors from patients with early- stage non-small cell lung cancer and late-stage ovarian cancer. Cancer Res, 61: 4766-4772, 2001.
206. Woo EY, Yeh H, Chu CS, Schlienger K, Carroll RG, Riley JL, Kaiser LR, June CH. Regulatory T cells from lung cancer patients directly inhibit autologous T cell proliferation. J Immunol, 168: 4272-4276, 2002.
207. Wood KJ, Sakaguchi S. Regulatory lymphocytes: regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol, 3: 199-210, 2003.
208. Xu WQ, Jiang XC, Zheng L, Yu YY, Tang JM. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-betaRII and Smad4 in colorectal carcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol, In Press, 2007.
209. Younes M, Schwartz MR, Ertan A, Finnie D, Younes A. Fas ligand expression in esophageal carcinomas and their lymph node metastases. Cancer, 88: 524-528, 2000.
210. Yu P, Rowleys DA, Fu Y-X, Schreiber H. The role of stroma in immune recognition and destruction of well-established solid tumors. Curr Opin Immunol, 18: 226-231, 2006.
211. Zea AH, Cutri BD, Longo DL, Alvord WG, Strobl SL, Mizoguchi H, Creekmore SP, O'Shea JJ, Powers GC, Urba WJ, Ochoa AC. Alterations in T cell receptor and signal transduction molecules in melanoma patients. Clin Cancer Res, 1: 1327-1335, 1995.
212. Zippelius A, Pittet MJ, Batard P, Rufer N, de Smedt M, Guillaume P, Ellefsen K, Valmore D, Lienard D, Plum J, MacDonald, HR, Speiser DE, Cerottini J-C, Romero P. Thymic selection generates a large T cell pool recognizing a self-peptide in humans. J Exp Med, 195: 485-494, 2002.
213. Zitvogel L, Mayordomo JI, Tjandrawan T, DeLeo AB, Clarke ML, Lotze MT, Storkus WJ. Therapy of murine tumors with tumor peptide-pulsed dendritic cells: dependence on T cells, B7 costimulation, and T helper cell 1-associated cytokines. J Exp Med, 183: 87-97, 1996.
Was this article helpful?
Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.