GD2 is aberrantly expressed in small cell lung cancer and is considered to be a key factor in cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Upregulated expression of GD3 in melanomas has been reported to enhance phosphorylation of two adaptor molecules, p130Cas and paxillin, which regulate cell growth and cell adhesion . Similarly, polysialic acid (polySA) is involved in cell-cell interactions and cell migration . Based on its large size and negative charge of the carbohydrate side chain, polySA has an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion and thus promotes cell motility . This has been confirmed in animal studies, where its expression correlated with tumor invasiveness, metastases, and increased growth rate .
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