Natural killer cells were initially recognized as able to kill tumor cells without the need for a prior stimulation [1, 2]. Now, after more than three decades, the significance of the antitumor activity of NK cells in vivo is still not completely understood. Accumulating data suggest that the tumor microenvironment may play a major role in the prevention and the modulation of NK cell activities. Therefore the identification and understanding of tumor microenvironment components that affects NK activity in vivo will enable the development of new therapeutic approaches, aiming at increasing NK cytotoxicity against various tumors.
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