Micro and Nanoparticle Based Vaccines for Hepatitis B

Dhruba J. Bharali1, Shaker A. Mousa2, and Yasmin Thanavala3

1 Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Immunology, Buffalo, NY, USA

2 Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany, Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, NY, USA

3 Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Immunology, Buffalo, NY, USA, [email protected]

Abstract. The incredible success of vaccinations in contributing to public health is undeniable. In fact, vaccines are the most cost-effective public health tool for disease prevention because their cost is less than the combined costs of treatment, hospitalization, and time loss from work. However, despite the availability of vaccines, cost per dose is a factor limiting the success of global vaccination campaigns, as are the limitations imposed by the need of delivering multiple vaccine doses. A number of approaches are being tested particularly for the delivery of subunit vaccines, and in recent years, a number of groups have devoted their efforts to develop nano/microparticles prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible polymers as vaccine delivery systems with the goal of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses. Some important properties of biodegradable polymers are their documented safety history, biocompatibility, and an ability to provide controlled time/rate of antigen release and polymer degradation. The most extensively studied polymer used for encapsulating vaccine antigens is poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA). This chapter deals in brief with efforts targeting the use of PLGA micro-and nanoparticles for the delivery of hepatitis B surface antigen.

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