Cell Technologies in Immunotherapy of Cancer

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

Vaccines Have Serious Side Effects

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Vladimir Moiseyenko1, Evgeny Imyanitov2, Anna Danilova1, Alexey Danilov1, and Irina Baldueva1

1 Prof. N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Department of Biotherapy and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, [email protected]

2 Prof. N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Department of Molecular Genetics, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Abstract. Tumor growth is accompanied by active immune reactions even on the early stages. Vaccine therapy implies the use of single antigen or combination of antigens, either with or without adjuvants, for the modulation of immune response. N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology joined the field of antitumor vaccine therapy and related cellular technologies in 1998. The following activities are held: (1) Optimization of the preparation of autologous and allogeneic antitumor vaccines and development of tumor cell culture bank for the experiments on allogeneic vaccination. (2) Clinical evaluation of autologous vaccine therapy by (a) bone marrow precursors of dendritic cells (DCs), which are loaded with tumor lysates; (b) genetically modified tumor cells; (c) intact tumor cells used in combination with various adjuvants (BCG, IL-1P, and IL-1P combined with low doses of cyclophosphamide) in patients with disseminated melanoma, metastatic kidney cancer, and colorectal cancer. Total 117 patients have received non-modified vaccine (48 patients: 2-6 intracutaneous BCG injections; 54 patients: 4-6 intracutaneous IL-1P injections; 15 patients: up to 6 injections of IL-1P in combination with low doses of cyclophosphamide). Clinical trial of genetically modified vaccine included 59 patients (clinical results: 1 PR (partial response) / 8 SD (disease stabilization) - melanoma, 2 PR/ 2 MR (minimal response) / 3 SD - renal cancer). Vaccine prepared from tumor cell-activated DC bone marrow precursors was administered to 18 patients (clinical results: 2 MR and 6 SD).

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