Alzheimers Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of p-amyloid (aP) peptide in various areas of the brain, and senile plaques develop as a result of the local activation of microglia cells and neuron destruction (Mackenzie et al. 1995). It can be said, then, that AD is a chronic inflammatory disease much like AIDS dementia and MS. Because of this, it is not surprising that a few studies have been done in animals to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabinoid-based drugs in...

SLE 1 2 3Genetic Dissection of Lupus

Department of Internal Medicine and the Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA, Chandra.mohan utsouthwestern.edu Abstract. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and complex autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of widespread immunological abnormalities and multiorgan injury. An important advance over the past decade has been our understanding of how different genetic loci (or genes) may dictate specific...

Anticancer Vaccine Approaches Derived from Autologous and Allogeneic Tumor Cells

Many cancer vaccines currently being developed use autologous or allogeneic tumor cells as a source of antigen for immunizing patients. Live vaccines can be modified to enhance immunogenicity. Non-viable cell vaccines can be used as a source of antigenic peptides, RNA, or heat shock proteins. An autologous tumor cell vaccine is derived from a patient's own tumor. It offers the potential to immunize against antigens generated by tumor-specific gene mutations. An allogeneic tumor vaccine is...

Role of Altered Expression of HLA Class I Molecules in Cancer Progression

Natalia Aptsiauri, Teresa Cabrera, Rosa Mendez, Angel Garcia-Lora, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello, and Federico Garrido Departmiento de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain, federico .garrido.sspa juntadeandalucia.es Abstract. HLA class I antigens play a key role in immune recognition of transformed and virally infected cells via binding to the peptides of non-self' or aberrantly expressed proteins and subsequent presentation of the newly formed HLA-I-peptide...

Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Melanoma Patients Treated with Dendritic Cell Vaccines

Borunova, and Tatiana N. Zabotina N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kad-zaira yandex.ru Abstract. The main goal of cancer immunotherapy is to induce or boost tumor-specific effector cells able to eliminate or reduce tumor progression. In this study, we characterized lymphocyte phenotypes in melanoma patients receiving dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccinotherapy. We found that several biological markers...

Immune Response Against Herpes Virus Infection

Mechanisms of innate immune are characterized by rapid induction and relatively undiversified response. The initial recognition is aimed to limit virus replication and spread to uninfected cells and involves additional cellular effectors in the infection control. Innate responses to the virus infection are composed of humoral components, including complement, natural antibodies, cytokines (IFN-a p, TNF-a, IL-12, etc.), and antimicrobial peptides (defensins), and recruited cellular effectors...

Treatment of HSV Infections

Nowadays, a wide range of drugs against herpes infection is manufactured, including acyclovir, which blocks viral DNA synthesis. However, since herpes virus is associated with lowering activity of NK and production of IFNs, it is conceivable to use cytokines, such as IFNs, for antiviral therapy. There are three TLR agonists (poly I C, imiquimod, and CpG ODNs), which have proven efficacy against experimental HSV-2 infections (Pyles et al. 2002). Synthetic versions of these agonists have been...

Mast Cells T Cells and Inhibition by Luteolin Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Theoharides, Duraisamy Kempuraj, and Betina P. Iliopoulou Departments of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Internal Medicine and Biochemistry Immunology Program, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA, theoharis.theoharides tufts.edu Abstract. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mainly mediated by Th1, but recent evidence indicates that Th2 T cells, mostly associated with...

Repeated Mucosal Applications of VP4 Protect Children from ARIs

ARIs represent a group of diseases with similar clinical features but caused by different pathogenic microorganisms. To date, more than 200 microorganisms are considered to cause ARIs, including 150 viruses, various bacteria, and their combinations (Ison et al. 2002). Data about etiology of ARI are summarized in Table 2. Evidently, it is impossible to use traditional specific vaccines for preventing ARIs with multiple causes, with the only exception known for influenza infections. We...

Genetic Dissection of Murine Lupus

The NZM2410 mouse strain is a New Zealand Black(NZB) White(NZW)-derived inbred strain that spontaneously develops highly penetrant lupus with nephritis that is very similar to human SLE (Rudofsky et al. 1993). By performing a genetic analysis (i.e., linkage study) of SLE susceptibility, several different chromosomal intervals, in particular Sle1z on chromosome 1, Sle2z on chromosome 4, and Sle3z on chromosome 7, have been found to confer lupus susceptibility in this mouse model (Morel et al....

Aberrant Adaptive Immunity in Lupus

The innate immune system is a universal and ancient form of host defense against infection. Before launching an effective adaptive immune response, the host must deal with acute assaults, sense the presence of pathogen, distinguish infectious non-self from non-infectious self, and direct an effective immune response against the invading organism rapidly. Dendritic cells (DCs), interferon-a, and Toll-like receptors all play central roles in innate immune responsiveness (Banchereau and Steinman...

Rational Development of Antigen Specific Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes

Georgia Fousteri, Damien Bresson, and Matthias von Herrath La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, Department of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA, Matthias liai.org Abstract. Administration of autoantigens, especially via the mucosal route, can induce tolerance under certain circumstances. In autoimmune diabetes, mucosal vaccination with autoantigens was frequently effective in restoring tolerance in mice but has not yet succeeded in humans. Furthermore, in some instances,...

Assessing Effect of Cancer Vaccines Immune Monitoring

Cancer cell vaccines stimulate the host's immune system to affect a response against tumor cells. They may produce local inflammatory responses that can induce tumor regression. The most sensitive technique for assessing a tumor-specific T cell response after immunization relies on the detection of the effects of T cell activation in response to tumor antigen, such as the secretion of cytokines or T cell proliferation. If immunization with a tumor cell vaccine results in an increase in the...

Serum Levels of Soluble HLA and IL2R Molecules in Patients with Urogenital Chlamydia Infection

Egorova1, Georgii Yu. Kurnikov1, Irina V. Evsegneeva2, Anatoly Yu. Baryshnikov3, and Alexandr V. Karaulov2 1 N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 2 I.M. Sechenov Medical Academy of Moscow, Russia, karaulov mtu-net.ru 3 N.N. Blohin Russian Oncological Scientific Centre, Moscow, Russia Abstract. Cellular immunity plays a central role in immune response to chlamydial infection, and soluble forms of immune cell membrane antigens take part in...

Improvement of Antitumor Immunity Through MDSC Elimination or Stimulation of Their Differentiation

Since expansion of MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice is associated with profound inhibition of antitumor immune response, it seems logical that elimination of those immune suppressive cells may help enhance the immune defense mechanisms. Indeed, earlier experiments from Schreiber group Seung et al. 1995 demonstrated that depletion of Gr-1 cells significantly improved CD8 T cell immune response and allowed for eradication of the tumor. Berzofsky's group demonstrated that depleting of Gr-1 myeloid...

Frequently Ill Children

Federal Educational Establishment Advanced Study Institute, FMBA, Moscow, Russia, markova immune.umos.ru Abstract. Frequently ill children FIC show persistence of infection in the nasopharynx, disbiosis of intestinal flora, and concomitant and allergic diseases. As per our results, FIC with acute respiratory diseases ARD frequency of 6-15 times a year plus chronic infection foci at the age of 2-15 y o at the remission period have heterogeneous nature of immune system disorders. It depends on...

Phase I Study of rhIL7 in Humans

Based on the large body of preclinical evidence pointing to its multiple immune-enhancing properties, investigations of the possible roles of rhIL-7 in clinical immunotherapy were initiated through several phase I trials in varied subject populations as part of a long-standing collaboration for the clinical development of rhIL-7 between Cytheris, Inc. Rockville, MD , and the National Cancer Institute NIH, HHS, Bethesda, MD . Three phase I clinical trials were initiated at the National Cancer...

Herpes Simplex Virus Treatment with Antimicrobial Peptides

Gankovskaya1, Oksana A. Gankovskaya2, and Vyacheslav F. Lavrov2 1 Russian State Medical University, Department of Immunology, Moscow, Russia 2 Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera, Department of Viral Infection Diagnostics Moscow, Russia, oksgan yandex.ru Abstract. The herpes virus infection represents a significant challenge for public health. The innate immunity plays an important role in herpes simplex virus HSV elimination. The innate antiviral...

References

Bieber, T., de la Salle, H., Wollenberg, A., Hakimi, J., Chizzonite, R., Ring, J., Hanau, D. and de la Salle, C. 1992 Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E Fc epsilon RI . J. Exp. Med. 175, 1285-1290. Bonasio, R. and von Andrian, U.H. 2006 Generation, migration and function of circulating dendritic cells. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 18, 503-511. Cookson, W. 2004 The immunogenetics of asthma and eczema a new focus on the epithelium. Nat. Rev. Immunol....

New Approaches for Monitoring CTL Activity in Clinical Trials

Release Assay

Anatoli Malyguine, Susan Strobl, Liubov Zaritskaya, Michael Baseler, and Kimberly Shafer-Weaver Applied and Developmental Research Support Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA, amalyguine ncifcrf.gov Abstract. We have developed a modification of the ELISPOT assay that measures Gran-zyme B GrB release from cytotoxic T lymphocytes CTLs . The GrB ELISPOT assay is a superior alternative to the 51Cr-release assay since it is significantly more sensitive and provides an...

Network of Myeloid DCs in AD

Filaggrin Gene Atopic Dermatitis

DCs as antigen-presenting cells are outposts of the immune system, which are located at the border zones of the body to the environment. Since they have been discovered over a century ago in 1868 by Paul Langerhans, they remained enigmatic and fascinated researchers all over the world Jolles 2002 . With the help of their dendrites, they form a sophisticated network within the epidermis and encounter foreign antigens. Subsequently, they internalize these antigens, secret cytokines, process them,...

Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

Dihydrorhodamine Test

Department of Laboratory Medicine, NIH Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA, tfleisher mail.nih.gov Abstract. The clinical utility and capacity to evaluate immunologic function has evolved significantly over the past few decades. This chapter summarizes screening methods and more sophisticated approaches to assess the immune system when there is a suspicion of an immune deficiency. The clinical utility and capacity to evaluate immunologic function has evolved...

Mycobacterium Infections and Immunodeficiencies

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, less virulent Bacille Calmette-Guerin, and NTM cause severe diseases in patients with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Disseminated infection resulted from BCG vaccination, or contact with NTM is usually associated with immunologic defects in a patient Reichenbach et al. 2001 . The inherited impairment of anti-tuberculosis immunity results from genetic defects that lead to IFN-y, IL-12, or their receptor deficiency playing crucial roles in the immune response...

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency II

LAD II syndrome results from a general defect in fucose metabolism, causing the absence of SLeX and other fucosylated ligands for the selectins. LAD II was first described in two unrelated Arab consanguineous parents Etzioni et al. 1992 . This is an extremely rare condition with only six patients reported Y akubenia and Wild 2006 . Affected children were born after uneventful pregnancies with normal height and weight. No delay in the separation of the umbilical cord was observed. They have...

Reduced Number and Function of CD4CD25highFoxP3 Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Torgashina, Sergey K. Soloviev, Evgeny L. Nassonov, and Svetlana N. Bykovskaia Laboratory of Cell Monitoring, Institution of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia, sbykovk mailcity.com Abstract. CD4 CD25 regulatory T cells Tregs play an important role in maintaining tolerance to self-antigens controlling occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Recently, it has been shown that the transcription factor forkhead box P3 FoxP3 is specifically...

New Peptide Analogue for Treating Lupus Patients The Potential of Peptide P140

By testing a series of overlapping peptides, we identified an epitope present in residues 131-151 of the spliceosomal U1-70K small nuclear ribonucleoprotein snRNP , recognized very early by IgG antibodies and CD4 LN T cells from both H-2k MRL lpr and H-2d z BW lupus-prone mice Monneaux et al. 2000, 2001 . Fibroblasts transfected with MHC class II molecules were used to demonstrate that peptides 131-151 readily binds I-Ak, I-Ek, I-Ad and I-Ed murine MHC molecules Monneaux et al. 2000, 2001 . We...

Conclusion

Many vaccine approaches are undergoing testing at this time Table 2 . The increasing knowledge in tumor antigens provides new strategies in vaccine design. With this increasing knowledge and new strategies, we should be able to overcome the challenges of immunotherapy caused by the ability of cancer cells to evade immune recognition and destruction through genetic alterations. Possible solutions include treating patients at earlier stages, with the hope that the cancer cells will not have...

Sergey K. Soloviev Rheumatology Email

Yasmeen Amina Olya

Immune-Mediated Diseases Where Do We Michael R. Shurin and Yuri S. Smolkin Immunodeficiencies News and Updates 2. The Four Most Common Pediatric 3. Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-Linked Inheritance Model for 4. DiGeorge Syndrome Velocardiofacial Syndrome The Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion 5. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiencies Molecular Basis, Clinical Findings, and Therapeutic 6. Nijmegen Breakage Irina Kondratenko, Olga Paschenko,...

List of Contributing Speakers

Maryam Aalamian-Matheis Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Michael Anderson Tumor Immunity and Tolerance Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, Cancer and Inflammation Program, CCR, NIH, Frederick, MD, USA Ron N. Apte Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Cancer Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Natalia Aptsiauri Department of Clinical Analyes, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain...