Femoral neck fractures - extracapsular, p. 52
Calcaneal (os calcis) fractures account for 1% of all fractures and 75% of tarsal fractures. They occur most frequently in males of working age and often lead to significant socio-economic problems. The calcaneus has a complex shape, articulating on four surfaces with the talus and cuboid. The calcaneus is important for weight-bearing, lever arm force transmission and foot shape, all of which may be altered by a fracture. There are two groups of fractures:
1. Intra-articular fractures constitute 75% of fractures and follow RTAs and falls from a height (classically a ladder) - both result in axial load. Five to ten per cent are bilateral. Other fractures are commonly associated - 20% have an ipsilateral limb injury, such as tibial plateau or hip fracture, and 10% have a cervical or lumbar spine fracture.
2. Extra-articular fractures constitute 25% of calcaneal fractures and follow a twisting injury or low-energy fall, usually resulting in an avulsion type fracture.
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