™ The shortness of the female urethra allows pain-free investigation with rigid endoscopes.
™ Cystoscopy should be performed together with calibration of the urethra using a bougie-a-boule probe if indicated.
™ Blind insertion with the closed instrument (sheath and obturator) is possible.
™ Inspection of the bladder as in the male cys-toscopy.
™ Inspection of the urethra to rule out urethral tumours, diverticula and fistulas is more difficult due to the shortness of the organ.
O Figures 3.5-3.12 show various findings on urethrocystoscopy out of hundreds of possible endoscopic views.
□ Fig. 3.10. Suture after incontinence surgery □ Fig. 3.11. Suture and incrustation after incontinence surgery
□ Fig. 3.12. Endoscopic view from the distal part of an ileoureteral substitute
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