™ Modern ureteroscopes with calibers of 610.5 Fr do not require dilation of the intramural ureter. Larger instruments should no longer be used.
™ Most scopes consist of optical channel, light fibres and one combined working and irrigation channel. Scopes with separate irrigation channels allow continuous irrigation flow and therefore optimized endoscopic view. The caliber, however, is larger than of scopes with one combined channel (O Figs. 12.3, 12.4).
□ Fig. 12.3. Modern semirigid ureteroscope with separate working/irrigation channels
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