References

1. Pirkmajer B, Leusch G (1977) A bladder-prostate model on which to practice using transurethral resection instruments (German). Urol A 16:336-338

2. Habib HN, Berger J, Winter CC (1965) Teaching transurethral surgery using a cow's udder. J Urol 93:77-79

3. Narwani KP, Reid EC (1969) Teaching transurethral surgery using cadaver bladder. J Urol 101:101

4. Fiddian RV (1967) A method of training in periurethral resection. Brit J Urol 39:192-193

5. Cervantes L, Keitzer WA (1960) Endoscopic training in urology. J Urol 84:585-586

6. Trindade JC, Lautenschlager MF, de Araujo CG (1981) Endoscopic surgery: a new teaching method. J Urol 126:192

7. Lardennois B, Clement T, Ziade A, Brandt B (1990) Computer simulation of endoscopic resection of the prostate. Ann Urol 24:519-523

8. Ballaro A, Briggs T, Gracia-Montes F, Mac Donald D, Emberton M, Mundy AR (1999) A Computer generated interactive transurethral prostatic resection simulator. J Urol 162:1633-1635

9. Michel MS, Knoll T, Köhrmann KU, Alken P (2002) The URO mentor: a new computer based interactive training system for virtual life-like simulation of diagnostic and therapeutic endourological procedures. BJU Int 89:174-177

Urethrotomy

Herbert Leyh, Roger Paul Introduction - 10

Pathogenesis of Urethral Strictures - 10

Preoperative Preparation - 10

Anaesthesia - 10

Indications - 10

Limitations and Risks - 11

Contraindications - 11

Instruments - 11

Operative Technique (Step by Step) - 12

Operative Tricks - 14

Postoperative Care - 14

Common Complications - 14

Laser Urethrotomy - 15

Outcome - 15

References - 15

Introduction

Is the urethrotomy procedure still up to date?

Since open urethroplasty for treatment of urethral strictures has the highest and longest-lasting success rate, the question of why we still perform a large number of internal urethrotomies arises. What are the advantages of the endourological incision?

Urethrotomy ™ is a simple procedure, ™ it can be performed even under local anesthesia,

™ it can be performed as an outpatient procedure,

™ in most cases open surgery would be an over-treatment.

Therefore, internal urethrotomy performed for proper indications also has a role in the future in the treatment of urethral strictures.

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