Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is still used for the majority of urinary stones, endourology, in particular ureterorenoscopy (URS) has become more important during the past few years. Increased experience and recent technological improvements such as active tip deflection, better lithotripsy probes and laser technology have led to a worldwide rising frequency of ureterorenoscopic procedures and an enlargement of indications [1, 2]. Today, URS offers a safe and efficient procedure not only for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi, but also for diagnostics, treatment of strictures and tumour ablation.

This chapter will focus on retrograde stone removal, which accounts for by far the most indications for URS.

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