□ Fig. 6.4. Normal, closed right inner inguinal ring. Spermatic vessels and vas deferens join each other in an inverse V-shape before entering the inguinal canal. In this case of nonpalpable right testis, surgery proceeds with open inguinal exploration
□ Fig. 6.7. Intraoperative situation during open orchiopexy of left distal intraabdominal testis (see □ Fig. 6.6). Note the Prentiss manoeuvre (testicle and spermatic cord pass under the mobilized inferior epigastric vessels to gain length for tension-free orchiopexy)
e blind ending vas deferens
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