Indications for Urethrocystoscopy

™ Gross hematuria.

™ Persistent hematuria.

™ Suspicion of bladder carcinoma, tumour infiltration from outside or metastases.

™ Follow-up in superficial bladder cancer.

™ For patients with upper tract transitional cell carcinoma to rule out coexistent bladder tumours.

™ Inspection of orifices in vesicoureteral/renal reflux or ureterocele.

™ Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI).

™ Diagnosis of interstitial cystitis.

™ Suspicion of urogenital tuberculosis.

™ Diagnosis of incontinence.

™ Diagnosis of female urethral diverticula.

™ Suspicion of vesicovaginal or vesicoenteric fistula.

™ Neurogenic voiding dysfunction.

™ Suspicion of subvesical obstruction (bladder outlet stenosis).

™ Detection of urethral or vesical foreign bodies.

™ Urethral inspection under suspicion of stricture, tumour, diverticulum or fistula.

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