Traditional Chinese Medicine
The plant is one of the major ingredients of an ointment used in the treatment of skin tumours in Chinese medicine. In Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Gabon and Tanganyika, different parts of the plant are used for the treatment of intercostal pain, rheumatic pain and fever. The leaf and root decoctions are used to treat pneumonia.
The water solubility of the carbonaceous organic fraction of aerosols is a major open question in climate models 227,228 . The water-soluble saccharides comprise from 13 to 26 of the total identified compound mass (TCM) in continental aerosols with isolated, higher values over the ocean (up to 63 40 ). These saccharides are interpreted to represent viable biomass and extracellular organic matter mainly in soils, but also in lesser amounts in road dust, dried lake sediments, etc., and possibly in marine particulate matter. Saccharides have been characterized in urban aerosols that contain entrained soil dust 191 , and in remote and rural areas 39,40,121 . They were proposed as tracers for soil resuspension with associated microbiota from agricultural tilling and harvesting, wind erosion, or traffic 185 . The secondary oxidation products of organic compounds in aerosols, especially over the oceans, are oxalic acid and the other short-chain dicarboxylic acids. They have been documented...
The use of such substances to prevent or moderate infectious diseases is a cornerstone of traditional Chinese medicine and also alternative medicine in Western countries. In this regard, there has been increased interest in prophylactic treatment to prevent or ameliorate clinical infection or re-infection by opportunistic microbes which cause chronic disease, including gastritis due to H. pylori. Such substances are often derived from extracts of plants considered medicinal. In particular, many
The commercially important species I. verum has often been confused with I. anisatum, which is toxic and potentially fatal if consumed. This confusion is particularly problematic because I. anisatum has been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and both species are therefore retailed commercially in Asia. The confusion is largely the result of similarities between the fruits, as the flowers are highly distinctive I. verum possesses flowers with rounded pink, red or purple tepals (Figure 2.4), whereas I. anisatum possesses elongated white or yellow tepals (Figure 2.3). Small (1996) outlined the confused use of vernacular names for the two species I. verum is variously called star anise, Chinese anise, and China star anise in the literature, whereas I. anisatum is called star anise, Chinese anise, Japanese anise, and Japanese star anise. Although the scientific nomenclature is clearly preferable because it is unambiguous, the use of the vernacular name star anise for fruits of...
Overfishing is a serious threat to the future of seahorses. The demand for them is large in traditional Asian medicine, where they are touted as cures for everything from asthma and heart disease to incontinence and impotence. An estimated twenty million seahorses are so used annually. Live animals are also sold for aquariums, where maintaining them is difficult because of their nutritional preference for live crustaceans and their
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