Replace Toxic Products in your home

Everyday Roots

This book includes home remedies, natural beauty recipes and Diy household product tutorials. Discover over 215 suprising natural home remedies using common ingredients like onion, lemons and apple cider vinegar. EveryDay Roots will help you to make healthy changes in your life. Learn how to treat coughs, headaches and other health conditions with common ingredients like honey and watermelon. When you buy the book you get a 328 page Pdf with a clickable table of contents. More here...

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Manufacturing Cleaning And Chemical Products

Manufacturing Cleaning and Chemical Products. is the result of experience gained over a period of twelve years in the chemical industry, accumulating, manufacturing and testing different formulas to produce only the highest quality products which can compete with any other manufactured product. Start up costs are low. You can jump start your business with a very small investment. Products are easy to manufacture, but extremely powerful. Raw materials are readily available anywhere from international chemical suppliers. Your products cannot be copied. The secret is in your book of formulas. It is a sound business, with unlimited growth potential. The market will never be saturated. After your initial start-up, you only replace what you use. You sell your products at your own convenience. This industry is one of the most profitable on the planet. More here...

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The Biosynthesis Of Fatty Acids

The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases are firmly membrane-bound and can only be solubilized by the use of detergents. Within the cell, activity has been detected in endoplasmic reticulum and the outer mitochondrial membrane with small amounts in peroxisomes (when the latter are present). There is some dispute as to whether the activity present in mitochondrial and microsomal fractions is due to the same enzyme. Because long-chain fatty acid activation is needed for both cata-bolism (P-oxidation) and for synthesis (acylation of complex lipids) it would be logical if the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum formed different pools of cellular acyl-CoA. This compartmentalization has been demonstrated with yeast mutants where it plays a regulatory role in lipid metabolism (Section and Fig. 2.26).

The Case For and Against DRMs as Evidence for Rafts in Cell Membranes

For a long time, the existence of DRMs was thought to reflect lipid rafts in biological membranes, and this is still one of the most widely used methods to define lipid rafts. This was despite the notion that many membrane-associated proteins and lipids interacting with the cytoskeleton directly or via complexes could be resistant to detergent extraction 14,15 . Studies examining the interaction of detergent with membranes are about as old as models that predicted the fluid nature of biological membranes 16 . Membranes of Semliki Forest virus were treated with different detergents, and various stages of virus membrane dissociation (following detergent treatment) were investigated for understanding virus function 17-19 . Simons and coworkers, following their studies on the preferential apical transport of some proteins and glycosphingolipids 4 , suggested that there may be a correlation between apical transport of these proteins and glycosphingolipids. This makes apical sorting of...

Proteomics of the Listeria monocytogenes Cell Wall

Listeria monocytogenes surface proteins have been traditionally characterized using extraction methods involving acid treatment, LiCl or detergents like SDS. These methods allow the extraction of surface proteins non-strongly attached to peptidoglycan, although they do not solubilize proteins covalently bound to the peptidoglycan. Unless peptidoglycan-hydrolytic enzymes are used, proteins bound covalently to the peptidoglycan, as those of the LPXTG family, are obtained in minute amounts (Navarre and Schneewind 1999). This is probably one of the reasons of why in L. monocytogenes, as in other gram-positive bacteria, relatively few proteins covalently bound to the peptidoglycan have been characterized.

Lipid Effects on Sphingomyelinase Activity

Studies on this subject are scarce, particularly for substrates in bilayer form. Linke et al. 118 have published data that show stimulation of recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase by lipids that occur frequently in lysosomes. The substrate was present as liposomes, and no detergents were used. The liposomes contained, basically, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and sphingomyelin. To this mixture other lipids were added as required. Lysosomally occurring lipids, e.g. phos-phatidylinositol and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, were effective stimulators (by up to 3-fold) of aSMase activity. Dolichol, and in particular dolicholphosphate, which occur in both Golgi and lysosomal membranes, were also effective aSMase activators. Interestingly, Linke et al. 118 also studied the effect of membrane curvature on aSMase activity, by preparing unilamellar liposomes of varying diameters (sub-50 to 200 nm). Enzyme activity increased remarkably with increasing curvature (decreasing size) of the...

Cell Lysis In the PCR Room

Thaw the samples and resuspend the pellet in lysis buffer at 107 cells mL. The detergents (Tween-20 and NP40) will dissolve cell and nuclear membranes and release the nuclear contents. Transfer the cell lysate into 500- jL PCR tubes. For maximum recovery, it is important to ensure a complete dissolution of the cell pellet at this stage.

Lateral heterogeneity is probably important in some membranes at least

Micro-lateral heterogeneity is present in membranes where particular lipids are found tightly bound to individual proteins. The clearest examples of this are the pigment-protein complexes of photosynthetic organisms. However, certain purified proteins appear to be highly enriched in specific lipids which are very tightly bound and survive solubilization and purification steps in the presence of detergents. Thus, chloroplast ATPase from spinach and the green alga Dunaliella salina have been reported to contain highly saturated molecular species of sulphoquinovosyldiacylgly-cerol. In addition, cytochrome c from mitochondria is a very basic protein that in vivo has been suggested to interact with diphosphatidylglycerol. However, in many other cases, what were thought to be specific interactions with proteins turn out to be general properties of lipids, which can be replaced by artificial compounds or even detergents while still preserving functional activity. The functions of lipids in...

MS Binding Assays Quantifying the Bound Marker

The liberation of the marker from the target-marker complex after separation should be complete and reproducible and include both the specifically and non-specifically bound marker. To achieve this, common methods for protein denatu-ration should be suitable (e.g. change in pH value, addition of organic solvents, chaotropic salts, detergents or increase in temperature) 76, 77 . However, it has to be kept in mind that the denaturation method should not interfere with the subsequent quantitation. When using ESI-MS for quantitation for example, high salt concentrations can lead to signal suppression and impair the LLOQ of the method 78, 79 . Therefore, denaturation with organic solvents seems to be more advantageous when using ESI-MS for quantitation.

Caveolin Expression and Localization in the Cell

Subcellular fractionation, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy with immunogold labeling methods have each been used to examine the localization of caveolin-1 in different tissues. Early studies isolated caveolae and lipid rafts based on the resistance of these cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains to solubilization in cold buffers containing Triton X-100 detergent and the light buoyancy of the fractions on sucrose gradients. A nondetergent methods was developed that is based on sequential density gradient centrifugation, in which the plasma membrane is first isolated, after which the caveolae and noncaveolae domains are separated on a second density gradient. An analysis of the purity and enrichment of the final caveolae fraction showed that this method yields a high-purity fraction, enriched in caveolae, and containing minimal contaminants (< 5 ) from other organelle fractions 16 . In contrast, when detergents such as 0.1 Triton X-100 are used with density...

Why are there so many membrane lipids

Divalent cations present in the medium to ensure that normal membrane structures are maintained. In wild-type E. coli fatty acid composition rather than lipid class is usually changed while Acholeplasma will adjust its monoglycosyl-(non-bilayer-forming) to diglycosyldiacylglycerol (bilayer-forming) ratio in response to the addition of sterol, hydrocarbons or detergents to its growth medium.

Postoperative Care and Complications

Complications of ablative resurfacing can include prolonged erythema, contact dermatitis, acne, infection, pigmentary changes, and scarring (Lewis and Alster 1996 Nanni and Alster 1998 Sriprachya-Anunt 1997). Postoperative erythema typically improves with time it is most pronounced during the first week and steadily subsides over the next few weeks. Prolonged erythema and or pruritus result from contact dermatitis, infection, or thermal damage. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis occurs more commonly in newly resurfaced skin and likely relates to the increased density of Langerhans cells, which is noted in areas of perturbed epidermis. Thus, anything that comes into contact with the skin can trigger a reaction as the disrupted epidermis more readily attracts the dendritic cells to potential sites of antigen invasion. The most likely contactants are sources of perfumes or dyes such as those found in fabric softener dryer sheets or detergents. Patients should be forewarned to elimi

Some Pertinent Experimental Methods 361 DNA and RNA Analysis

The technique is used for the separation and study of restriction fragments. The first step is the extraction of high molecular mass DNA from cells in the sample of interest, e.g., blood, bone marrow, surgical biopsy specimen, or fine needle aspirate, using organic solvents, proteases, and detergents. Next, the extracted DNA is digested with restriction endonucleases and the fragments generated are separated by size using electrophoretic techniques on cross-linked agarose or poly-acrylamide gels. In the case of large fragments, pulsed field gel electrophoresis is used to achieve the separation. In this method the direction of the electric current is alternated between several different sets of electrodes. Because the restriction fragments are double-stranded and the molecular probes used for recognition (see below) can detect only single-stranded DNA, the separated DNA fragments must be denatured with NaOH into single chains. This is followed by transfer of the fragments onto a...

Biotinylation of cellsurface proteins

Cell-surface proteins are labelled by incubation with an aqueous solution of sulfo-NHS-biotin. Cells should be in a buffer that contains no primary amine groups (i.e. not Tris or glycine), as these compounds compete with proteins for biotinylation. In addition, sulfo-NHS-biotin undergoes hydrolysis in aqueous solution however, this is an unavoidable side-reaction but is overcome with excess biotin. The biotinylation reaction appears to be complete within 20-40 min at 0.5 mg ml (6). The unbound biotin can be quenched with culture medium or with primary amine-containing buffers (e.g. Tris). Cell membranes are solubilized with detergents and specific antigen immunoprecipitated from the lysates. After SDS-PAGE and blotting to nitrocellulose (see Sections 3 and 4), biotinylated proteins are detected with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase. As with iodination, it is important to maintain cell viability to prevent labelling intracellular proteins. In some...

Solubilization of membrane proteins

Immunoprecipitation of cell-surface proteins from labelled cells requires the isolation of these molecules from the lipid component of the membrane. Detergents, organic molecules with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics, are used to carry out this separation. The cells are lysed and the antigen solubilized in detergent so that it can be selectively precipitated with antibody. The choice of a particular detergent used to lyse the labelled cells is important and can affect the results obtained. Mild (e.g. CHAPS, digitonin) and non-ionic (e.g. Nonidet P-40 (NP-40), Triton X-100) detergents are generally employed to solubilize and disperse antigens in their native state. Lysis with these detergents avoids disruption of the nuclear envelope and release of DNA, which can increase the precipitation of non-specific proteins. Solubilization of membrane proteins with weakly ionic detergents (e.g. sodium deoxycholate) disrupts the nuclear membrane, and thus these detergents are best...

Methods of detection and quantification of foodborne pathogens

In general, the above-mentioned problems can be solved by using anti-oxidant buffer mixes consisting of phenolic compounds absorbers (e.g. polyvinylpolypirrolidone PVPP), antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid, glutha-tion), mild detergents (e.g.Tween 20), and buffers (e.g. buffered phosphate) (Rossen et al., 1992). Also, to increase the efficiency of microbial removal, large volumes of extracting buffers are needed in relation to the amount of material processed (50-250ml). However, the methods of analysis only permit processing small amounts of extracted material (less than 1 ml). Thus, an additional stage of removal of large particulate debris, and separation or concentration of microbial cells, is required. The removal of large materials which are generated by more vigorous extraction methods is simply accomplished by cheese-cloth filtration. Separation and concentration of microbial cells from the suspension can be performed by membrane filtration, centrifugation or immunomagnetic...

Rapid Screening of Protein Formulations

Several screening methods have been summarized in a recent review (Wang 1999). These include (1) comparison of the protein unfolding temperature (Tm) in different formulations, (2) comparison of half denaturation concentration, Chalf, in the presence of a denaturant, and (3) comparison of IR spectra of different protein formulations with a reference spectrum. In many cases, protein thermal stability has been shown to correlate positively with protein stability against denaturing agents, including detergents and organic solvents (Cowan 1997). In other cases, such a correlation may not exist, such as for albumin (Farruggia and Pico 1999).

Linear Alkylbenzenes LABs and Tetrapropylene Based Alkyl Benzenes TABs

Small amounts of LABs escape the sulfonation process and are present in commercial formulations being released to the environment when LAStype detergents are used. Typical concentrations of the LAB residues in the LAS-type detergents range from 20 to 800 gg-1 63 . Alternative sources of LABs, other than surfactant-related products, are fluid oils used in offshore drilling, some crude oils and coal pyrolysis oils 51 . However, the different distribution of homologs (C3-C29) depending upon whether they are of diagenetic or synthetic origin, allows the distinction of these alternatively sourced LABs from surfactant-related LABs. The highly hydrophobic nature of LABs leads to their adsorption onto suspended particles and sediments,

Resistance and capacity adaptation to low temperatures

Studies of the responses of organisms to cold have yielded, or have the potential to produce, a wide range of practical applications. These include the control of pests by influencing or predicting their survival overwinter and improved methods for cryopreserving organisms and biological materials. Cold-adapted enzymes from psychrophilic microorganisms and polar fish may have applications in the food industry, in biotechnology, laundry detergents and in the treatment of wastewater. Cold-adapted microbes themselves are used for the cold fermentation of beer and wine and for the ripening of cheeses and other foods.

Pros and Cons of MALDI

Second, the success of MALDI-TOF analyses is highly dependent on the quality of the sample. Contamination of the peptide digest sample with significant levels of detergents, buffer salts, metals, or organic modifiers (e.g., DTT, urea, glycerol) may greatly inhibit peptide ionization in the MALDI source. Although these variables can affect virtually any MS analysis, MALDI is particularly sensitive because there is no in-line HPLC system to separate contaminants from the sample. However, MALDI-TOF users have employed successful microscale solid-phase cleanup tools (e.g., ZipTips ) to remove salts and other contaminants.

The Listeria monocytogenes Cell Wall Proteome

Them corresponding to abundant proteins (chaperons, translation factors, and enzymes of central metabolism). Noteworthy, no cell-wall-associated protein was identified in this study. A further study, focused on the characterization of the L. monocytogenes secretome using 2D gels and non-gel proteomics, revealed the presence of numerous cell-wall-associated proteins in the extracellular medium (Trost et al. 2005). These proteins could be released from the cell either as complexes containing fragments of cell-wall polymers or as a result of proteolytic processing. The secretome of the EGD-e strain contains the LPXTG proteins InlA, InlH, Lmo0880, Lmo1666, and Lmo2714 the two NXZTN proteins Lmo2185 and Lmo2186 several autolysins containing GW modules (Auto, Ami, Lmo1216, Lmo1521, and Lmo2591) the autolysin Ami two members of the P-60 subfamily (P60, P45) two PBPs (Lmo2039 and Lmo2754) and InlB. Two other proteins of unknown function, Lmo2504 and Lmo2522, annotated as...

Caveolin A Scaffold for eNOS

Since NO is a very labile and highly reactive messenger molecule with autocrine and paracrine functions, the site of NO production should logically have a major influence on its biological activity. The discovery in 1996 of the location of eNOS in caveolae 6,7 was therefore viewed as the proof of concept that compartmentation of the enzyme is critical to fine-tune NO synthesis. This specific locale of eNOS had been suspected based on the double acylation process that characterizes eNOS myristoylation on glycine (at position 2) and palmitoylation on two cysteines (at positions 15 and 26). In fact, by using cultured endothelial cells, eNOS was shown to be preferentially located in caveolae (versus the rest of the plasma membrane), with each acylation process enhancing the caveolar enrichment some 10-fold 6 . This discovery was rapidly followed by the identification of a tight regulation between eNOS and caveolin, the structural protein of caveolae. It has been reported that, in...

Environmental contamination

Still very little is known of the effects of pollutants on insect diversity. Although in some cases, pollution impacts may be relatively benign, as in the case of detergents on dragonflies on the island of Mayotte (Samways, 2003a), there may be in reality three other factors to consider. Firstly, pollution may have a long-term effect that is not detected in short-term studies. Secondly, pollution can pulse depending on intensity and frequency of emission activities, and may go undetected unless the monitoring is taking place at just the right time and in the right place. Thirdly, pollution is very often synergistic with other impacts, especially fragmentation and threats from invasive aliens, making it difficult at times to pinpoint the pollution threat and to make recommendations for sound conservation management. Pollution effects can also be synergistic with global climate change (see Chapter 7). Both gaseous pollutants and increased CO2 concentrations are likely to alter the...

ALIS An Affinity Selection Mass Spectrometry System based on Continuous SEC

Genital Wart Schematic

In the affinity selection step, a protein target is incubated with one or more compounds in a physiologically relevant buffer containing any necessary cofac-tors, salts, metal ions, and detergents. The ALIS system is generic with respect to target class, and the binding reaction can be performed using proteins of virtually any variety, including both soluble targets and membrane-associated proteins enzymes such as proteases, kinases, and phosphatases nuclear hormone receptors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Genomic targets from bacterial or viral pathogens, especially novel target proteins that are derived from lethal gene product deletions but are of otherwise unknown function, can be readily studied to yield potential anti-infective compounds. Since the binding reaction is solution based, potential ligands can query all protein surfaces and not just the ''active site,'' enabling the discovery of ligands that act through allosteric binding and other mechanisms. The use of...

Chelating Agents Peripheral Proteins

Urea Membrane Proteins

Membrane proteins may be divided operationally into two groups (Fig. 11-6). Integral proteins are very firmly associated with the membrane, removable only by agents that interfere with hydrophobic interactions, such as detergents, organic solvents, or denaturants. Peripheral proteins associate with the membrane through electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding with the hydrophilic domains of integral proteins and with the polar head groups of membrane lipids. They can be released by relatively mild treatments that interfere with electrostatic interactions or break hydrogen bonds a commonly used agent is carbonate at high pH. Peripheral proteins may serve as regulators of membrane-bound enzymes or may limit the mobility of integral proteins by tethering them to intracellular structures. FIGURE 11-6 Peripheral and integral proteins. Membrane proteins can be operationally distinguished by the conditions required to release them from the membrane. Most peripheral proteins are...

Digestion And Absorption Of Lipids

Docosahexaenoic Acid Molecule

Bile salts are derived from cholesterol, but they are different from cholesterol in that they are water-soluble. They are essentially detergents molecules that possess both hy-drophilic and hydrophobic properties. Because bile salts are polar molecules, they penetrate cell membranes poorly. This is significant because it ensures their minimal absorption by the jejunum where most fat absorption takes place. At or above a certain concentration of bile salts, the critical micellar concentration, they aggregate to form micelles, the concentration of luminal bile salts is usually well above the critical micellar concentration. When bile salts alone are present in the micelle, it is called a simple micelle. Simple micelles incorporate the lipid digestion products monoglyceride and fatty acids to form mixed micelles. This renders the lipid digestion products water-soluble by incorporation into mixed micelles. Mixed micelles diffuse across the unstirred water layer and deliver lipid digestion...

Manufacture Of Liposomes Glassware

The glassware used in the manufacture of liposomes should be thoroughly cleaned and free of residual detergents. Phosphate-based detergents should be avoided. Disposable glass pipets also should be avoided, because the blue graduations are soluble in chloroform and will contaminate the liposomes. The preparation of liposomes utilizes rotary evaporation and lyophilization, which concentrates contaminants leading to impure and potentially leaky liposome formulations. There are several cleaning methods appropriate for the glassware that can be used for liposomes manufacture. (i) Chromic-sulfuric acid this method has been utilized for many years and thoroughly cleans the glassware. Extensive rinsing with deionized water is required to ensure complete removal of the acid. Chromic-sulfuric acid is extremely caustic and represents safety concerns for personnel when used. In addition, spent chromic-sulfuric acid must be disposed as hazardous wastes. (ii) RBS-35 from Pierce Biotechnology...

Cytokine Secretion by TH1 and Th2 Subsets

The immune response to a particular pathogen must induce an appropriate set of effector functions that can eliminate the disease agent or its toxic products from the host. For example, the neutralization of a soluble bacterial toxin requires antibodies, whereas the response to an intracellular virus or to a bacterial cell requires cell-mediated cytotoxicity or delayed-type hypersensitivity. A large body of evidence implicates differences in cytokine-secretion patterns among TH-cell subsets as determinants of the type of immune response made to a particular antigenic challenge.

Transbilayer lipid asymmetry is an essential feature of all known biological membranes

Asymetry Lipid Layer

Outer leaflet enhances transfer of replacement lipids from the inner leaflet (transbilayer movement). In addition, the products of lipid digestion may be detergents, which could themselves alter membrane structure (e.g. lysophospholipids). In some instances, similar methods (i.e. radiolabelling, enzyme digestion, antibody labelling) may be used to analyse membrane proteins and, in addition, if the latter are enzymes, then they can be measured with their substrates.

Digestion Mobilization and Transport of Fats

In vertebrates, before ingested triacylglycerols can be absorbed through the intestinal wall they must be converted from insoluble macroscopic fat particles to finely dispersed microscopic micelles. This solubilization is carried out by bile salts, such as taurocholic acid (p. 355), which are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine after ingestion of a fatty meal. Bile salts are amphipathic compounds that act as biological detergents, converting dietary fats into mixed micelles of bile salts and triacylglycerols (Fig. 17-1, step d> ).

Link Between Hemolymph Coagulation And Prophenoloxidase Activation

The clotting enzyme or factor B functionally transforms hemocyanin to phenoloxidase, and the conversion reaches a plateau at 1 1 stoichiometry without proteolytic cleavage. The active site-masked clotting enzyme also has the same effect, suggesting that complex formation of the clotting enzyme with hemocyanin is critical for the conversion. Interestingly, the zymogen of the clotting enzyme (proclotting enzyme) also induces the phenoloxidase activity. A common structural feature of the clotting enzyme and factor B is the presence of the NH2-terminal clip domain, consisting of three disulfide bridges (12,13), as mentioned previously. Homologous clip domains are also present in the NH2-terminal regions of insect prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes (40-42), but not in those of factor C and factor G. Therefore, the clip domains of the clotting enzyme and factor B may mediate the interaction of these proteases with hemocyanin to turn on the switch for functional conversion. Arthropod...

Theyre trying to poison me

High levels of heavy metals and some other elements (such as lead, copper, arsenic and antimony) are toxic to most organisms. There are microorganisms which can tolerate these elements and may even use them in their metabolism. These can be useful for cleaning up polluted areas. There are also microorganisms that can utilise any form of naturally occurring organic compounds which derive from biological activity. Microbes which degrade petroleum, and other types of hydrocarbon deposits, may be a nuisance under some circumstances, but are useful for cleaning up spills. Not all organic compounds are metabolised by microorganisms. Some of human origin (such as plastics, detergents and pesticides) are not degraded and thus accumulate in the environment, often with harmful effects.

The CD3 complex

As mentioned earlier, the TCR was identified by precipitation of labelled cell membrane-associated proteins using monoclonal antibodies. When different detergents were used and the precipitated proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, sequentially under non-reducing and reducing conditions, further molecules (g, d, e) were identified which associated with the TCR (Figure 2.9). Originally, these were known as the T3 complex and


Other synthetic procedures lead to the manufacture of acetaldehyde, acetic acid, ethyl halides, and acetonitrile, which are in turn employed for the preparation of drugs, explosives, ad-hesives, pesticides, detergents, synthetic fibers, and other substances. Ethanol itself is used in vast quantities as a solvent.

Proteins in Caveolae

In earlier research, the range of factors that could modify native complexes in plasma membrane fractions, including detergents and cross-linking antibodies, was not fully appreciated. Major differences between cell lines in the protein composition of caveolae also were not recognized. Proteins in caveolae in primary cells may be found in caveolin-free lipid rafts or nonraft membrane domains in transformed and continuous cell lines, many of which express few, if any, caveolae 46-48 . Growth conditions can have major effects on the structure of caveolae, and on the distribution of caveolin between caveolae and other microdomains 49 . Expression of caveolin in cell lines that are normally caveolin-defi-cient (e. g., FRT cells) may lead to the appearance of only a few cell-surface caveolae most of the caveolin expressed accumulates on intracellular membrane vesicles 50 . The sum of these factors means that the distribution of membrane proteins between caveolae and other...


As mentioned earlier, haemosiderin was the first storage form of iron to be identified (Perls, 1867) and isolated (Cook, 1929). The name is perhaps misleading - while the source of haemosiderin iron is haem, the iron cores of haemosiderin contain non-haem iron. It is found in conditions of iron overload, usually associated with toxic pathological states in man, but frequently found as a normal physiological response without any toxicity in many birds, and animals (e.g. marmosets, lemurs, horses and reindeer - reviewed in Ward et al., 2000). Haemosiderin appears upon EM examination as massive clusters of irregular, electron-dense particles, most of which are enclosed within membranous structures, thought to be iron-laden secondary lysosomes which have been described as siderosomes (Iancu, 1989 Richter, 1984). Electron micrographs of iron-loaded tissue and of siderosomes from human and avian (Order Passeriformes ) spleen are presented in Figure 6.16. In man, haemosiderin is present in...


The efficiency of the detergent is affected by the degree of hardness of the water. Different detergents are available for hard and soft waters. Preference should be given to a detergent demonstrated to be effective with the particular water supply used. Water produced by a ship's distilling plants is normally very soft.

Protein Composition

Perilipins remain tightly bound to LD through alkaline carbonate or urea wash conditions, and require detergents to remove them. Stable expression of perlipin A in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and subsequent immunofluorescence microscopy and im-munoblotting revealed that neither the amino- nor the carboxyl-terminus is required to target perilipin A to LD 176 . Full-length perilipin A is associated with LD via hydrophobic interactions, as shown by the persistence of perilipins on LD after centrifugation through alkaline carbonate solution. Mutagenesis studies indicate that the signals responsible for tight anchoring of perilipin A to LD are, most probably, multiple, partially redundant targeting sequences of moderately hydro-phobic amino acids located within the 25 of the central domain. These signals seem to be, at least in part, constituted by the three regions of moderate hydro-phobic character and the five domains with characteristics of amphipathic -pleated sheets 176 . Cytochemical...

Endocrine disrupters

Towards the end of the 1990s environmental scientists began to realize that a wide variety of chemicals in the environment could disrupt endocrine functions of animals. The initial discovery was made by Soto et al. (1991), who reported that breast cancer cells sensitive to oestrogen responded to a then-unknown compound leaching in very low amounts from laboratory plasticware made of polystyrene (Colborn et al. 1996). The compound was identified as p-nonyl-phenol, one of a family of synthetic chemicals called alkylphenols, which are added to polystyrene and polyvinylchloride to improve stability of the plastic. Alkylphenols are also produced as biodegradation products of alkyl polyethoxylate detergents, and are therefore found in sewage effluent and wastewater from septic tanks. The effect of nonylphenol on oestrogen-sensitive cells appeared to be due to its binding to the oestrogen receptor, one of several steroid hormone-binding proteins present in the cytoplasm. When activated by...

Growing House Plants

House plants are commonly overwatered, resulting in the unnecessary development of rots and diseases (see Table A4.2). As a rule, the surface of the potting medium should be dry to the touch before watering, but the medium should not be allowed to dry out completely unless the plant is dormant. Care should be taken, particularly during the winter, that the water is at room temperature. Rain water, if available, is preferred over tap water, particularly if the water has a high mineral content or is chlorinated. Broad-leaved plants should periodically have house dust removed with a damp sponge (never use detergents to clean surfaces they remove protective waxes). Many plants benefit from a daily misting with water, particularly in heated rooms.

Bile Acids

Cholesterol Bile

The bile acids* are C24 steroidal acids that occur in salt form in bile, secreted into the gut to emulsify fats and encourage digestion. They act as detergents by virtue of their relatively non-polar steroid nucleus and the polar side-chain, which contains a carboxylic acid group, that is typically bound via an amide linkage to glycine or taurine. Thus, for example, cholic acid (Figure 5.108) is found as sodium glycocholate and sodium tauro-cholate. Metabolism to bile acids is also the principal way in which mammals degrade cholesterol absorbed from the diet. These structures are formed in the liver from cholesterol by a sequence which oxidizes off three carbons from the side-chain (Figure 5.109). This is achieved by initial oxidation of one of the side-chain methyls to an acid, followed by a -oxidation sequence as seen with fatty acids (see Figure 2.11), removing the three-carbon

The Phosphorus Cycle

Phosphorus Mine Image

Phosphorus is often a limiting nutrient in soils and lakes, which is why adding phosphorus to farmland and lakes increases their biological productivity. Most of this extra phosphorus enters lakes in the form of phosphates derived from fertilizers and household detergents. The resulting eutroph-ication allows algae and bacteria to multiply, forming blooms that turn the water green. The decomposition of dead cells produced by this increased biological activity consumes all the O2 in the lake, and anaerobic organisms come to dominate the bottom sediments. These anaerobic organisms do not break down carbon compounds all the way to CO2. Their metabolic end products build up many of these products have unpleasant odors.

CIP in isolators

Incorporated in the isolator P& ID. This topic has been well presented by several workers, notably Melgaard (1995), who suggests that there are two aspects to isolator CIP. The first is the reduction of the bioburden to a minimum prior to gas-phase sterilisation (SIP). The second is removal of product residues to prevent cross-contamination following product changeover. A further aspect where toxic products are being handled is decontamination-in-place (see below).


There are many sources of contamination, in the clinical laboratory. Some of these may affect a random specimen and be overlooked or not detected, even with inclusion of standards and controls. Thorough cleaning of glassware is essential. Detergents frequently contain large quantities of sodium and inorganic phosphate, and these will interfere if not completely removed. A simple check to detect residual detergent consists of filling pipets or rinsing glassware with a dilute solution of phenolphthalein. No pink color should appear. Several commercial bleaches contain approximately 5.5 per cent sodium hypochlorite, and various detergents contain larger quantities. If such detergents are used to clean urinals or specimen bottles, the containers must be rinsed thoroughly prior to collection of urine specimens for laboratory examinations. Our false-positives were traced in part to contamination with hydrogen peroxide. In 1 instance, ail catheters during the cleaning process had been soaked...

Intrinsic Proteins

To remove intrinsic proteins from a membrane it is necessary to solubilize the molecules using detergents that can break the hydrophobic interactions with lipids. The lipids adjacent to the proteins experience a different environment from the bulk lipid of the membrane and this has led to the concept of boundary lipids. ESR (electron-spin resonance) studies showed that lipids residing at the lipid-protein interface exhibited increased-order parameters (restricted motion) in the acyl chain region. Recent experiments, however, paint a dif

The breath of life

Anaerobic conditions prevailed during the early stages of the Earth's history. The oxygen in the atmosphere originated from the activities of photosynthetic organisms and only accumulated once the quantity of oxygen produced by photosynthesis exceeded the capacity of chemicals in soils and sediments to remove it (by being oxidised). Organisms which live in aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen) had to adapt to doing so, while strictly anaerobic organisms, which cannot survive exposure to oxygen, have persisted in those habitats where it is absent. Strictly anaerobic microorganisms cannot survive exposure to oxygen because it forms some highly toxic reactive ions and molecules. Among these are the superoxide ion (O ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH-). Aerobic organisms have enzymes which destroy these toxic products of oxygen. These include catalase and peroxidase, which break down hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide dismutase, which destroys the superoxide...

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Thousands Have Used Chemicals To Improve Their Medical Condition. This Book Is one Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Chemicals. Not All Chemicals Are Harmful For Your Body – Find Out Those That Helps To Maintain Your Health.

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