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High Prevalence of Androgen Deficiency in HIV-Infected

Men and Women Pathophysiology of HIV-Infection in the Reproductive Tract and Potential Mechanisms of Gonadal Dysfunction Adverse Consequences of Low Testosterone Concentrations on Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Infected Individuals Evidence That Testosterone Has Anabolic Effects on Muscle

Effects of Androgen Replacement on Body Composition and Muscle Function in HIV Infection Testosterone Effects on Health-Related Outcomes in Men With Chronic Illness Testosterone Effects on Fat Metabolism Mechanisms of Testosterone's Effects on Body Composition Summary References

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 produces a complex, multisystem syndrome that results from the combined effects of the virus infection, progressive immunosuppression, malignancies and opportunistic infections, poor nutrition, and the complications of antiretroviral therapy. Androgen deficiency is only one facet of this highly heterogeneous syndrome. Therefore, androgen supplementation should only be viewed as an adjunctive therapy within the context of a multicompo-nent therapeutic strategy. Although there is increasing evidence that androgen deficiency, defined solely in terms of low testosterone levels, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men and women and that low testosterone levels are associated with adverse disease outcomes, the long-term benefits and risks of testosterone supplementation on health-related outcomes in HIV-infected individuals have not been clearly demonstrated.

From: Male Hypogonadism: Basic, Clinical, and Therapeutic Principles Edited by: S. J. Winters © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

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