1. Bhasin S, Gabelnick HL, Spieler JM, Swerdloff RS, Wang C. Pharmacology, Biology and Clinical Applications of Androgen. New York, Wiley Liss, 1996.

2. Nieschlag E, Behre HM. Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution, 2nd ed. Springer, Berlin, 1998.

3. Wang C, Swerdloff RS. Androgen replacement therapy. Ann Med 1997;29:365-370.

4. Wang C, Swerdloff RS. Androgen replacement therapy, risks and benefits. In: Wang C, ed. Male Reproductive Function. Norwell, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 157-172.

5. Steinberger E, Ayala C, His B, et al. Utilization of commercial laboratory results in management of hyperandrogenism in women. Endocr Pract 1998;4:1-10.

6. Vermeulen A, Verdonck L, Kaufman JM. A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:3666-3672.

7. O'Connor S, Baker HWG, Dulmanis A, Hudson B. The measurement of sex steroid binding globulin by differential ammoniumsulfate precipitation. J Steroid Biochem 1973;4:331-339.

8. Cumming DC, Wall SR. Non sex hormone binding globulin bound testosterone as a marker of hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:873-876.

9. Sinha-Hikim I, Arver S, Beall G, et al. The use of a sensitive equilibrium dialysis method for the measurement of free testosterone levels in healthy cycling women and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1312-1318.

10. Sodergard R, Backstrom T, Shanbhag V, Carstensen H. Calculation of free and bound fractions of testosterone and estradiol 17ß to human plasma protein at body temperature. J Steroid Biochem 1982;26:801-810.

11. Rosner W. Errors in the measurement of plasma free testosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2014-2015.

12. Winters SJ, Kelly DE, Goodpaster B. The analog free testosterone assay: are the results in men clinically useful? Clin Chem 1998;44:2178-2182.

13. Davidson JM, Camargo CA, Smith ER. Effects of androgen on sexual behavior in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979;48:955-958.

14. Skakkebaek NE, Bancroft J, Davidson DW, Warner P. Androgen replacement with oral testosterone undecanoate in hypogonadal men: a double-blind controlled study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1981;14:49-61.

15. Burris AS, Banks SM, Carter CS, Davidson JM, Sherins RJ. A long-term, prospective study of the physiologic and behavioral effects of hormone replacement in untreated hypogonadal men. J Androl 1992;13:297-304.

16. Wang C, Eyre DE, Clark R, et al. Sublingual testosterone replacement improves muscle mass and strength and decrease bone resorption and increases bone formation markers in hypogonadal men: a Clinical Research Center Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:3654-3662.

17. Wang C, Swerdloff RS, Iranmanesh A, et al. and the Testosterone Gel Study Group. Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85;2839-2853.

18. Tenover JL. Male senescence. In: Wang C, ed. Male Reproductive Function. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 139-156.

19. Hajjar RR, Kaiser FE, Morley JE. Outcomes of long-term testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal males: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3793-3796.

20. Snyder PJ, Peachy H, Hannoush P, et al. Effect of testosterone treatment on body composition and muscle strength in men over 65 years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2647-2653.

21. Bhasin S, Woodhouse L, Casaburi R, et al. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men. Am J Phys 2001;281:E1172-E1181.

22. Dabbs JM, Jr. Salivary testosterone measurements in behavioral studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;694:177-183.

23. Anderson RA, Bancroft J, Wu FC. The effects of exogenous testosterone on sexuality and mood of normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;75:1503-1507.

24. Wang C, Alexander G, Berman N, et al. Testosterone replacement therapy improves mood in hypogonadal men—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:3578-3583.

25. Anderson RA, Martin CW, Kung AWC, et al. 7a-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone maintains sexual behavior and mood in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3556-3562.

26. O'Connor DB, Archer J, Hair WM, Wu FC. Activational effects of testosterone on cognitive function in men. Neuropsychologia 2001;39:1385-1394.

27. Patwardhan AJ, Eliez S, Bender B, Linden MG, Reiss AL. Brain morphology in Klinefelter syndrome: extra X chromosome and testosterone supplementation. Neurology 2000;54:2218-2223.

28. Alexander GM, Swerdloff RS, Wang C, et al. Androgen-behavior correlations in hypogonadal men and eugonadal men. II. Cognitive abilities. Horm Behav 1998;33:85-94.

29. Boone KB, Swerdloff RS, Miller BL, et al. Neuropsychological profile of adults with Klinefelter Syndrome. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2001;7:446-456.

30. Cherrier MM, Anawalt BD, Herbst KL, et al. Cognitive effects of short-term manipulation of serum sex steroids in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:3090-3096.

31. Janowsky JS, Oviatt SK, Orwoll ES. Testosterone influences spatial cognition in older men. Behav Neurosci. 1994;108:325-332.

32. Janowsky JS, Chavez B, Orwoll E. Sex steroids modify working memory. J Cogn Neurosci 2000;12:407-414.

33. Kenny AM, Bellantonio S, Gruman CA, Acosta RD, Prestwood KM. Effects of transdermal testosterone on cognitive function and health perception in older men with low bioavailable testosterone levels. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002;57:M321-M325.

34. Yaffe K, Lui LY, Zmuda J, Cauley J. Sex hormones and cognitive function in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:707-712.

35. Cherrier MM, Asthana S, Plymate S, et al. Testosterone supplementation improves spatial and verbal memory in healthy older men. Neurology 2001;57:80-88.

36. Brodsky IG, Balagopal P, Nair KS. Effects of testosterone replacement on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis in hypogonadal men—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:3469-3475.

37. Sinha-Hikim I, Artaza J, Woodhouse L, et al. Testosterone-induced increase in muscle size in healthy young men is associated with muscle fiber hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 200l;283:E154-E164.

38. Katznelson L, Finkelstein JS, Schoenfeld DA, Rosenthal DJ, Anderson EJ, Klinbanski A. Increase in bone density and lean body mass during testosterone administration in men with acquired hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:4358-4365.

39. Snyder PJ, Peachey H, Berlin JA, et al. Effects of testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2670-2677.

40. Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, et al. Testosterone replacement increases fat-free mass and muscle size in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:407-413.

41. Clague JE, Wu FC, Horan MA. Difficulties in measuring the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle function in older men. Int J Androl 1999;22:261-265.

42. Marin P, Holmang S, Jonsson L, et al. The effects of testosterone treatment on body composition and metabolism in middle aged obese men. Int J Obes 1992;16:991-997.

43. Singh AB, Hsia S, Alaupovic P, et al. The effects of varying doses of T on insulin sensitivity, plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and C-reactive protein in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:136-143.

44. Greendale G, Edelstein S, Barrett-Connor E. Endogenous sex steroids and bone mineral density in older women and men. The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1833-1841.

45. Khosla S, Melton LJ, Atkinson EJ, O-Fallon WM, Klee GG, Riggs BL. Relationship of serum sex steroid levels and bone turnover markers with bone mineral density in men: a key role for bio-available estrogen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2266-2275.

46. Smith EP, Boyd J, Frank GR, et al. Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1056-1061.

47. Morishima A, Grumback MM, Simpson ER, Fisher C, Qui K. Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3689-3698.

48. Carani C, Oin K, Simoni M, et al. Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med 1997;337:91-95.

49. Behre HM, Kliesch S, Leifke E, Link TM, Nieschlag E. Long-term effect of testosterone therapy on bone mineral density in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2386-2390.

50. Kenny AM, Prestwood KM, Raisz LG. Short-term effects of intramuscular and transdermal testosterone on bone turnover, prostate symptoms, cholesterol, and hematocrit in men over age 70 with low testosterone levels. Endocr Res 2000;26:153-168.

51. Snyder PJ, Peachey H, Berlin JA, et al. Effects of testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:2670-2677.

52. Bagatell C, Heiman JR, Matsumoto AM, Rivier JE, Bremner WJ. Metabolic and behavioral effects of high-dose, exogenous testosterone in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:561-567.

53. Friedl KE, Hannan CJJ, Jones RE, Plymate SR. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not decreased if an aromatizable androgen is administered. Metabolism 1990;39:69-74.

54. Dobs AS, Bachorik PS, Arver S, et al. Interrelationships among lipoprotein levels, sex hormones, anthropometric parameters, and age in hypogonadal men treated for 1 year with a permeation-enhanced testosterone transdermal system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1026-1033.

55. Arver S, Dobs AS, Meikle AW, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of a permeation-enhanced testosterone transdermal system in hypogonadal men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1997;47:727-737.

56. Barrett-Connor E, Khaw K. Endogenous sex hormones and cardiovascular disease in men. Circulation 1988;78:539-545.

57. Simon D, Charles A, Nahoul K, et al. Association between plasma total testosterone and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adult men: The Telecom Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;82:682-685.

58. Phillips GB, Pinkernell BH, Jing TY. The association of hypotestosteronemia with coronary artery disease in men. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14:701-706.

59. Zhao SP, Li XP. The association of low plasma testosterone level with coronary artery disease in Chinese men. Int J Cardiol 1998;63:161-164.

60. Jaffe MD. Effect of testosterone cypionate on post-exercise ST segment depression. Br Heart J 1977;39:1217-1222.

61. Wu S, Weng X. Therapeutic effects of an androgen preparation on myocardial ischemia in 62 elderly male coronary heart disease patients. Chin Med J 1993;106:415-418.

62. English KM, Mandour O, Steeds RP, Diver MJ, Jones TH, Channer KS. Men with coronary artery disease have lower levels of androgens than men with normal coronary angiograms. Eur Heart J 2000;21:890-894.

63. Rosano GM, Leonardo F, Pagnotta P, et al. Acute anti-ischemic effect of testosterone in men with coronary artery disease [erratum appears in Circulation 2000 Feb 8; 101:584]. Circulation 1999;99:1666-1670.

64. Webb CM, McNeill JG, Hayward CS, de Zeigler D, Collins P. Effects of testosterone on coronary vasomotor regulation in men with coronary heart disease. Circulation 1999;100:1690-1696.

65. Thompson PD, Ahlberg AW, Moyna NM, et al. Effect of intravenous testosterone on myocardial ischemia in men with coronary artery disease. Am Heart J 2002;143:249-256.

66. Behre HM, Bohmeyer J, Nieschlag E. Prostate volume in testosterone-treated and untreated hypogonadal men in comparison to age-matched normal controls. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1994;40:341-349.

67. Meikle AW, Arver S, Dobs AS, et al. Prostate size in hypogonadal men treated with a nonscrotal permeation-enhanced testosterone transdermal system. Urology 1997;49:191-196.

68. Handelsman DJ. The safety of androgens: prostate and cardiovascular disease. In: Wang C, ed. Male Reproductive Function. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 173-189.

68a. Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. NJ Engl Med 2003;349:215-224.

69. Renericca NJ, Solomon J, Fimian WJ Jr, Howard D, Rizzoli V, Stohlman F Jr. The effect of testosterone on erythropoiesis. Scand J Haematol 1969;6:431-439.

70. De Lorimier AA, Gordon GS, Lower RC, Carbone JV. Methyltestosterone, related steroids, and liver function. Arch Int Med 1965;116:289-294.

71. Nadell J, Kosek J. Peliosis hepatis. Twelve cases associated with oral androgen therapy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1977;101:405-410.

72. Matsumoto AM, Sandblom RE, Schoene RB, et al. Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men: effects on obstructive sleep apnoea, respiratory drives, and sleep. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1985;22:713-721.

73. Snyder PJ, Lawrence DA. Treatment of male hypogonadism with testosterone enanthate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:1335-1339.

74. Sokol RZ, Palacios A, Campfield LA, Saul C, Swerdloff RS. Comparison of the kinetics of injectable testosterone in eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Fertil Steril 1982;37:425-430.

75. Zhang GY, Gu YO, Wang XH, Cui YG, Bremner WJ. Pharmacokinetic study of injectable testosterone undecanoate in hypogonadal men. J Androl 1998;19:761-768.

76. Behre HM, Abshagen K, Oettel M, Hubler D, Nieschlag E. Intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate for the treatment of male hypogonadism: phase I studies. Eur J Endocrinol 1999;140:414-419.

77. Nieschlag E, Buckter D, von Eckardstein S, Abshagen K, Simoni M, Behre HM. Repeated intramuscular injections of testosterone undecanoate for substitution therapy in hypogonadal men. Clin Endocrinol 1999;51:757-763.

78. Bhasin S, Swerdloff RS, Steiner B, et al. A biodegradable testosterone microcapsule formulation provides eugonadal levels of testosterone for 10-11 weeks in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:75-83.

79. Amory JK, Anawalt BD, Blaskovich PD, Gilchriest J, Nuwayan ES, Matsumoto AM. Testosterone release from a subcutaneous, biodegradable microcapsule formulation (Viatrel) in hypogonadal men. J Androl 2002;23:84-91.

80. Nieschlag E, Mauss J, Coert A, Kicovic PM. Plasma androgen levels in men after oral administration of testosterone or testosterone undecanoate. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1975;79:366-374.

81. Schumeyer T, Wickings E, Freischem C, Nieschlag E. Saliva and serum testosterone following oral testosterone undecanoate administration in normal and hypogonadal men. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1983;102:456-462.

82. Gooren LJ. A ten-year safety study of the oral androgen testosterone undecanoate. J Androl 1994;15:212-215.

83. Dobs AS, Hoover DR, Chen M-C, Allen R. Pharmacokinetic characteristics, efficacy, and safety of buccal testosterone in hypogonadal males: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:330-339.

84. Salahian B, Wang C, Alexander G, et al. Pharmacokinetics, bioefficacy, and safety of sublingual testosterone cyclodextrin in hypogonadal men: comparison to testosterone enanthate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3567-3575.

85. Wang C, Kipnes M, Matsumoto A, et al. Novel testosterone bioadhesive buccal table—pharmacokinetics and safety evaluation. Abstract. 84th Annual Meeting of Endocrine Society, San Francisco, 2002.

86. Findlay JC, Place V, Snyder PJ. Treatment of primary hypogonadism in men by the transdermal administration of testosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;68:369-373.

87. Cunningham GR, Cordero E, Thornby JI. Testosterone replacement with transdermal therapeutic systems. Physiological serum testosterone and elevated dihydrotestosterone levels. JAMA 1989;261:2525-2530.

88. Meikle AW, Mazer NA, Moellmer JF, et al. Enhanced transdermal delivery of testosterone across nonscrotal skin produces physiological concentrations of testosterone and its metabolites in hypogo-nadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:623-628.

89. Meikle AW, Arver S, Dobs AS, Sanders SW, Rajaram L, Mazer NA. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of a permeation-enhanced testosterone transdermal system in hypogonadal men: influence of application site: a Clinical Research Center Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1832-1840.

90. Brocks DR, Meikle AW, Boike SC, et al. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone in hypogonadal men after transdermal delivery: influence of dose. J Clin Pharmacol 1996;36:732-739.

91. Wang C, Berman N, Longstreth JA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of transdermal testosterone gel in hypogonadal men: application of gel at one site versus four sites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:964-969.

92. Swerdloff RS, Wang C, Cunningham G, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of two doses of transdermal testosterone gel versus testosterone patch after daily application for 180 days in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4500-4510.

92.a Steidle C, Schwartz S, Jacoby K, et al. North American AA2500 T Gel Study Group. AA2500 testosterone gel normalizes androgen levels in aging males with improvements in body composition and sexual function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88(6):2673-2681.

93. Wang C, Swerdloff RS, Iranmanesh A, et al. and the Testosterone Gel Study Group. Effects of transdermal testosterone gel on bone tunrover markers and bone mineral density. Clin Endocrinol 2001;54:739-750.

94. Schaison G, Nahonl K, Couzinet B. Percutaneous dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. In: Nieschlag E, Behre HM, eds. Testosterone: action deficiency, substitution. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1990, pp. 155-164.

95. De Lignieres B. Transdermal dihydrotestosterone treatment of andropause. Ann Med 1993;25:235-241.

96. Ly LP, Jimenez M, Zhuang TN, Celermajer DS, Conway AJ, Handelsman DJ. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of transdermal dihydrotestosteronegel on muscular strength, mobility and quality of life in older men with partial androgen deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:4078-4088.

97. Kunelius P, Lukkainen O, Hannuksela ML, Itkonen O, Tapanaimen JS. The effects of transdermal dihydrotestosterone in the aging male: a prospective, randomized, double blind study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;87:1467-1472.

98. Wang C, Iranmanesh A, Berman N, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of three doses of percutaneous dihydrotestosterone gel in healthy elderly men; A Clinical Research Center Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2749-2757.

99. Wang C, Swerdloff RS. Should the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone be considered as an alternative to testosterone in the treatment of andropause? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1462-1466.

100. Handelsman DJ, Conway AJ, Boylan LM. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of testosterone pellets in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:216-222.

101. Handelsman DJ, Mackey MA, Howe C, Turner L, Conway AJ. An analysis of testosterone implants for androgen replacement therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1997;47:311-316.

102. Kelleher S, Turner L, Howe C, Conway AJ, Handelsman DJ. Extrusion of testosterone pellets: a randomized controlled clinical study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1999;51:469-1471.

103. Kumar N, Didolkar AK, Monder C, Bardin DW, Sundaram K. The biological activity of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone is not amplified in male reproductive tract as is that of testosterone. Endocrinology 1992;130:3677-3683.

104. Cummings DE, Kumar N, Bandin CW, Sundaram K, Bremner WJ. Prostate-sparing effects in primates of the potent androgen 7a-methyl-19nortestosterone: a potential alternative to testosterone for androgen replacement and male contraception. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:4212-4219.

105. Anderson RA, Martin CW, Kung AWC, et al. 7a-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone maintains sexual behavior and mood in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3556-3562.

106. Edwards JP, Zhi L, Poolay CL, et al. Preparation, resolution, and biological evaluation of 5-aryl-1, 2-dihydro-5H-chromeno [3,4-f] quinolines:potent, orally active, nonsteroidal progesterone receptor agonists. J Med Chem 1998;41:2779-2785.

107. Hamann LG, Higuchi RI, Zhi L, et al. Syntheses and biological activity of a novel series of nons-teroidal, peripherally selective androgen receptor antagonists derived from 1,2-dihydropyridono [5,6-g] quinolines. J Med Chem 1998;41:623-639.

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment