9. Tenover JS. Testosterone in the aging male. J Androl 1997;18:103-106.
10. Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Metter EJ, Blackman MR, Harman SM, Resnick SM. Longitudinal assessment of serum free testosterone concentration predicts memory performance and cognitive status in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:5001-5007.
11. Gray A, Berlin JA, McKinlay JB, Longcope C. An examination of research design effects on the association of testosterone and male aging: results of a meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44:671-684.
12. Nieschlag E, Kley HK, Wiegelmann W, Solbach HG, Kruskemper HL. Age and endocrine function of the testes in adult man. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1973;98:1281-1284.
13. Gray A, Feldman HS, McKinlay JB, Longcope C. Age disease, and changing sex hormone levels in middle-aged men: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:1016-1025.
14. Morley JE, Kaiser FE, Perry HM, 3rd, et al. Longitudinal changes in testosterone luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metab Clin Exp 1997;46:410-413.
15. Hollander N, Hollander VP. The microdetermination of testosterone in human spermatic vein blood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1958;18:966-971.
17. Morley JE, Kaiser F, Raum WJ, et al. Potentially predictive and manipulable blood serum correlates of aging in the healthy human male: progressive decreases in bioavailable testosterone, dehy-droepiandrosterone sulfate, and the ratio of insulin-like growth factor I to growth hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:7537-7542.
18. Blackman MR, Weintraub BD, Rosen SW, Harman SM. Comparison of the effects of lung cancer, benign lung disease, and normal aging on pituitary-gonadal function in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;66:88-95.
19. Deslypere JP, Vermeulen A. Leydig cell function in normal men: effect of age, lifestyle, residence, diet and activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;59:955-962.
20. Mankin HR, Calkins JH. Decreased bioavailable testosterone in aging normal and impotent men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63:1418-1420.
21. Bergendahl M, Aloi JA, Iranmanesh A, Mulligan T, Veldhuis JD. Fasting suppresses pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and enhances the orderliness of LH release in young but not older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1967-1975.
22. Winters SJ, Troen P. Episodic luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and the response of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone to LH-releasing hormone in aged men: evidence for coexistent primary tes-ticular insufficiency and an impairment in gonadotropin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;55:560-565.
23. Vermeulen A, Deslypere JP, De Meirleir K. A new look at the andropause: altered function of the gonadotrophs. J Steroid Biochem 1989;32:163-165.
24. Baker HWG, Burger HG, de Kretser DM, et al. Changes in the pituitary-testicular system with age. Clin Endocrinol 1976;5:349-372.
25. Mitchell R, Hollis S, Rothwell C, Robertson WR. Age-related changes in the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men; lower serum testosterone results from decreased bioactive LH drive. Clin Endocrinol 1995;42:501-507.
26. Urban RJ, Veldhuis JD, Blizzard RM, Dufau ML. Attenuated release of biologically active luteinizing hormone in healthy aging men. J Clin Invest 1988;81:1020-1029.
27. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Gheorghiu S, Godschalk M, Veldhuis JD. Amplified nocturnal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretory burst frequency with selective attenuation of pulsatile (but not basal) testosterone secretion in healthy aged men: possible Leydig cell desensitization to endogenous LH signal-ing—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:3025-3031.
28. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Kerzner R, Demers LW, Veldhuis JD. Two-week pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone infusion unmasks dual (hypothalamic and Leydig-cell) defects in the healthy aging male gonadotropic axis. Eur J Endocrinol 1999;141:257-266.
29. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Johnson ML, Straume M, Veldhuis JD. Aging alters feedforward and feedback linkages between LH and testosterone in healthy men. Am J Physiol 1997;42:R1407-R1413.
30. Pincus SM, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Gheorghiu S, Godschalk M, Veldhuis JD. Older males secrete luteinizing hormone and testosterone more irregularly and jointly more asynchronously than younger males. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:14100-14105.
31. Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Godschalk M, Mulligan T. Older men manifest multifold synchrony disruption of reproductive neurohormone outflow. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1477-1486.
32. Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Mulligan T, Pincus SM. Disruption of the young-adult synchrony between luteinizing hormone release and oscillations in follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3498-3505.
33. Winters SJ, Sherins RJ, Troen P. The gonadotropin-suppressive activity of androgen is increased in elderly men. Metabolism 1984;33:1052-1059.
34. Urban RJ, Evans WS, Rogol AD, Kaiser DL, Johnson ML, Veldhuis JD. Contemporary aspects of discrete peak detection algorithms. I. The paradigm of the luteinizing hormone pulse signal in men. Endocr Rev 1988;9:3-37.
35. Veldhuis JD. Recent insights into neuroendocrine mechanisms of aging of the human male hypothal-amo-pituitary-gonadal axis. J Androl 1999;20:1-17.
36. Veldhuis JD. Male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In: Yen SSC, Jaffe RB, Barbieri RL, eds. Reproductive Endocrinology, 4th ed.: W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1999, pp. 622-631.
37. Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML, Keenan D, Iranmanesh A. The ensemble male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In: Timiras PS, ed. Physiological Basis of Aging and Geriatrics, 3rd ed. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2003, pp. 213-231.
38. Keenan DM, Veldhuis JD, Yang R. Joint recovery of pulsatile and basal hormone secretion by stochastic nonlinear random-effects analysis. Am J Physiol 1998;274:R1939-R1949.
39. Keenan DM, Veldhuis JD. Hypothesis testing of the aging male gonadal axis via a biomathematical construct. Am J Physiol Reg Integr Comp Physiol 2001;280:R1755-R1771.
40. Keenan DM, Veldhuis JD. Disruption of the hypothalamic luteinizing-hormone pulsing mechanism in aging men. Am J Physiol 2001;281:R1917-R1924.
41. Chubb CE, Desjardins C. Testicular function and neuroendocrine activity in senescent mice. Am J Physiol 1984;247:E410-E415.
42. Shin SH, Howitt C. Effect of castration on luteinizing hormone and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the male rat. J Endocrinol 1975;65:447-448.
43. Gruenewald DA, Naai MA, Hess DL, Matsumoto AM. The Brown Norway rat as a model of male reproductive aging: evidence for both primary and secondary testicular failure. J Gerontol 1994;49:B42-B50.
44. Bonavera JJ, Swerdloff RS, Leung A, et al. In the male Brown-Norway (BN) male rat reproductive aging is associated with decreased LH-pulse amplitude and area. J Androl 1997;18:359-365.
45. Shaar CJ, Euker JS, Riegle GD, Meites J. Effects of castration and gonadal steroids on serum luteinizing hormone and prolactin in old and young rats. J Endocrinol 1974;66:45-51.
46. Mulligan T, Kuno HL, Vij S, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Healthy older men show heightened LH secretory sensitivity and capacity to GnRH stimulation. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Geriatrics Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1999.
47. Kaufman JM, Giri M, Deslypere JM, Thomas G, Vermeulen A. Influence of age on the responsiveness of the gonadotrophs to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;72:1255-1260.
48. Karpas AE, Bremner WJ, Clifton DK, Steiner RA, Dorsa DM. Diminished luteinizing hormone pulse frequency and amplitude with aging in the male rat. Endocrinology 1983;112:788-791.
49. Jarjour LT, Handelsman DJ, Swerdloff RS. Effects of aging on the in vitro release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 1986;119:1113-1117.
50. Coquelin AW, Desjardins C. Luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in young and old male mice. Am J Physiol 1982;243:E257-E263.
51. Witkin JW. Aging changes in synaptology of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in male rat preoptic area. Neuroscience 1987;22:1003-1013.
52. Kaler LW, Critchlow V. Anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion during continuous perifusion in aging male rats. Mech Ageing Devel 1984;25:103-115.
53. Huang HH, Kissane JQ, Hawrylewicz EJ. Restoration of sexual function and fertility by fetal hypothalamic transplant in impotent aged male rats. Neurobiol Aging 1987;8:465-472.
54. Deslypere JP, Kaufman JM, Vermeulen T, Vogelaers D, Vandalem JL, Vermeulen A. Influence of age on pulsatile luteinizing hormone release and responsiveness of the gonadotrophs to sex hormone feedback in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;64:68-73.
55. Veldhuis JD, Urban RJ, Lizarralde G, Johnson ML, Iranmanesh A. Attenuation of luteinizing hormone secretory burst amplitude is a proximate basis for the hypoandrogenism of healthy aging in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;75:52-58.
56. Veldhuis JD, Urban RJ, Dufau ML. Differential responses of biologically active LH secretion in older versus young men to interruption of androgen negative feedback. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:1763-1770.
57. Vermeulen A, Deslypere JP, Kaufman JJ. Influence of antiopioids on luteinizing hormone pulsatility in aging men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;68:68-72.
58. Kaler LW, Neaves WB. Attrition of the human Leydig cell population with advancing age. Anat Rec 1978;192:513-518.
59. Reubens R, Dhondt M, Vermeulen A. Further studies on Leydig cell response to human choriogonadotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976;39:40-45.
60. Nankin HR, Lin T, Murono EP. The aging Leydig cell III. Gonadotropin stimulation in men. J Androl 1981;2:181-186.
61. Harman SM, Tsitouras PD. Reproductive hormones in aging men. I. Measurement of sex steroids, basal luteinizing hormone, and Leydig cell response to human chorionic gonadotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:35-40.
62. Longcope C. The effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on plasma steroid levels in young and old men. Steroids 1973;21:583-592.
63. Veldhuis JD, Fraioli F, Rogol AD, Dufau ML. Metabolic clearance of biologically active luteinizing hormone in man. J Clin Invest 1986;77:1122-1128.
64. Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML, Dufau ML. Physiological attributes of endogenous bioactive luteinizing hormone secretory bursts in man: assessment by deconvolution analysis and in vitro bioassay of LH. Am J Physiol 1989;256:E199-E207.
65. Winters SJ, Troen PE. Testosterone and estradiol are co-secreted episodically by the human testis. J Clin Invest 1986;78:870-872.
66. Foresta C, Bordon P, Rossato M, Mioni R, Veldhuis JD. Specific linkages among luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone release in the peripheral blood and human spermatic vein: evidence for both positive (feed-forward) and negative (feedback) within-axis regulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3040-3046.
67. Glass AR, Vigersky RA. Resensitization of testosterone production in men after human chorionic gonadotropin-induced desensitization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:1395-1400.
68. Dufau ML, Catt KJ. Gonadotropin receptors and regulation of steroidogenesis in the testis and ovary. Vitam Horm 1978;36:461-585.
69. Veldhuis JD, King JC, Urban RJ, et al. Operating characteristics of the male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: pulsatile release of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone and their temporal coupling with luteinizing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metabolism 1987;65:929-941.
70. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Pulsatile iv infusion of recombinant human LH in leupro-lide-suppressed men unmasks Iimpoverished leydig-cell secretory responsiveness to midphysiologi-cal LH drive in the aging male. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:5547-5553.
71. Fox CR, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. A paradigm of GnRH-receptor antagonist administration followed by pulsatile I.V. recombinant human (RH) LH demonstrates equivalent acute Leydig-cell steroidogenic function in younger and older men. 84th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society San Francisco California June 19-22 2002.
72. Desylpere JP, Kaufman JM, Vermeulen A, Vogelaers D, Vandalem JL, Vermeulen A. Influence of age on pulsatile luteinizing hormone release and responsiveness of the gonadotrophs to sex hormone feedback in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;64:68-73.
73. Winters SJ, Atkinson L. Serum LH concentrations in hypogonadal men during transdermal testosterone replacement through scrotal skin: further evidence that aging enhances testosterone negative feedback. Clin Endocrinol 1997;47:317-322.
74. Gentili A, Mulligan T, Godschalk M, et al. Unequal impact of short-term testosterone repletion on the somatotropic axis of young and older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:825-834.
75. Veldhuis JD, Urban RJ, Dufau ML. Evidence that androgen negative-feedback regulates hypothala-mic GnRH impulse strength and the burst-like secretion of biologically active luteinizing hormone in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:1227-1235.
76. Veldhuis JD, Zwart A, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A. Muting of androgen negative feedback unveils impoverished gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretory reactivity in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:529-535.
77. Haji M, Kato KI, Nawata H, Ibayashi H. Age-related changes in the concentrations of cytosol receptors for sex steroid hormones in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of the rat. Brain Res 1980;204:373-386.
78. Roth GS, Heiss GI. Changes in the mechanisms of hormone and neurotransmitter action during aging: current status of the role of receptor and post-receptor alterations. Mech Ageing Devel 1982;20:175-194.
79. Veldhuis JD, Zwart AD, Iranmanesh A. Neuroendocrine mechanisms by which selective Leydig-cell castration unleashes increased pulsatile LH release in the human: an experimental paradigm of short-term ketoconazole-induced hypoandrogenemia and deconvolution-estimated LH secretory enhancement. Am J Physiol 1997;272:R464-R474.
80. Zwart A, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Disparate serum free testosterone concentrations and degrees of hypothalamo-pituitary-LH suppression are achieved by continuous versus pulsatile intravenous androgen replacement in men: a clinical experimental model of ketoconazole-induced reversible hypoandro-genemia with controlled testosterone add-back. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2062-2069.
81. Keenan DM, Sun W, Veldhuis JD. A stochastic biomathematical model of the male reproductive hormone system. J Appl Math 2000;61:934-965.
82. Keenan DM, Veldhuis JD. Stochastic model of admixed basal and pulsatile hormone secretion as modulated by a deterministic oscillator. Am J Physiol Reg Integr Comp Physiol 1997;273:R1182-R1192.
83. Keenan DM, Veldhuis JD. A biomathematical model of time-delayed feedback in the human male hypothalamic-pituitary-Leydig cell axis. Am J Physiol 1998;275:E157-E176.
84. Davies TF, Platzer M. The perifused Leydig cell: system characterization and rapid gonadotropin-induced desensitization. Endocrinology 1981;108:1757-1762.
85. Chase DJ, Schanbacher B, Lunstra DD. Effects of pulsatile and continuous luteinizing hormone (LH) infusions on testosterone responses to LH in rams actively immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 1988;123:816-826.
86. Lincoln GA. Luteinizing hormone and testosterone in man. Nature 1974;252:232-233.
87. Rowe PH, Racey PA, Lincoln GA, Ellwood M, Lehane J, Shenton JC. The temporal relationship between the secretion of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in man. J Endocrinol 1975;64:17-25.
88. Bagatell CJ, Dahl KD, Bremner WJ. The direct pituitary effect of testosterone to inhibit gonadotropin secretion in men is partially mediated by aromatization to estradiol. J Androl 1994;15:15-21.
89. Snyder PJ, Reitano JF, Utiger RD. Serum LH and FSH responses to synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;41:938-945.
90. Veldhuis JD, Evans WS, Johnson ML, Rogol AD. Physiological properties of the luteinizing hormone pulse signal: impact of intensive and extended venous sampling paradigms on their characterization in healthy men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;62:881-891.
91. Partsch C-J, Abrahams S, Herholz N, Peter M, Veldhuis JD, Sippell WG. Variability of pulsatile LH secretion in young male volunteers. Eur J Endocrinol 1994;131:263-272.
92. Veldhuis JD, Evans WS, Rogol AD, et al. Intensified rates of venous sampling unmask the presence of spontaneous high-frequency pulsations of luteinizing hormone in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;59:96-102.
93. Veldhuis JD, Evans WS, Rogol AD, et al. Performance of LH pulse detection algorithms at rapid rates of venous sampling in humans. Am J Physiol 1984;247:554E-563E.
94. Mulligan T, Delemarre-van de Waal HA, Johnson ML, Veldhuis JD. Validation of deconvolution analysis of LH secretion and half-life. Am J Physiol 1994;267:R202-R211.
95. Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Demers LM, Mulligan T. Joint basal and pulsatile hypersecretory mechanisms drive the monotropic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) elevation in healthy older men: concurrent preservation of the orderliness of the FSH release process. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3506-3514.
96. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Pulsatile GnRH unmasks dual (hypothalamic and Leydig cell) defects in healthy older men. Presented at the American Geriatrics Society Annual Meeting Philadelphia PA, May 1999.
97. Zwart AD, Urban RJ, Odell WD, Veldhuis JD. Contrasts in the gonadotropin-releasing dose-response relationships for luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and alpha-subunit release in young versus older men: appraisal with high-specificity immunoradiometric assay and deconvolution analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 1996;135:399-406.
98. Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. A novel acute hypoandrogenemic clamp abolishes the age difference in GnRH's dose-dependent stimulation of LH secretion and orderliness in older men. Presented at the Endocrine Society 83rd Meeting, Denver CO, June 20-23 2001.
99. Veldhuis JD, Rogol AD, Samojlik E, Ertel N. Role of endogenous opiates in the expression of negative feedback actions of estrogen and androgen on pulsatile properties of luteinizing hormone secretion in man. J Clin Invest 1984;74:47-55.
100. Santen RJ, Bardin CW. Episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in man. J Clin Invest 1973;52:2616-2618.
101. Urban RJ, Davis MR, Rogol AD, Johnson ML, Veldhuis JD. Acute androgen receptor blockade increases luteinizing-hormone secretory activity in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;67:1149-1155.
102. Veldhuis JD, Carlson ML, Johnson ML. The pituitary gland secretes in bursts: appraising the nature of glandular secretory impulses by simultaneous multiple-parameter deconvolution of plasma hormone concentrations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987;84:7686-7690.
103. Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML. Deconvolution analysis of hormone data. Meth Enzymol 1992;210:539-575.
104. Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML. Specific methodological approaches to selected contemporary issues in deconvolution analysis of pulsatile neuroendocrine data. Meth Neurosci 1995;28:25-92.
105. Veldhuis JD, Moorman J, Johnson ML. Deconvolution analysis of neuroendocrine data: waveform-specific and waveform-independent methods and applications. Meth Neurosci 1994;20:279-325.
106. Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML. Cluster analysis: a simple versatile and robust algorithm for endocrine pulse detection. Am J Physiol 1986;250:E486-E493.
107. Veldhuis JD, Lassiter AB, Johnson ML. Operating behavior of dual or multiple endocrine pulse generators. Am J Physiol 1990;259:E351-E361.
108. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Clarke I, Alexandre S, Irvine CHG. Estimation of endogenous luteinizing hormone-testosterone secretory coupling in three mammalian species. Presented at 27th Annual Meeting of American Society of Andrology Seattle, WA, April 24-27 2002.
109. Pincus SM. Approximate entropy as a measure of system complexity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991;88:2297-2301.
110. Pincus SM, Hartman ML, Roelfsema F, Thorner MO, Veldhuis JD. Hormone pulsatility discrimination via coarse and short time sampling. Am J Physiol 1999;277:E948-E957.
111. Veldhuis JD, Johnson ML, Veldhuis OL, Straume M, Pincus S. Impact of pulsatility on the ensemble orderliness (approximate entropy) of neurohormone secretion. Am J Physiol Reg Integr Comp Physiol 2001;281:R1975-R1985.
112. Pincus SM, Keefe DL. Quantification of hormone pulsatility via an approximate entropy algorithm. Am J Physiol 1992;262:E741-E754.
113. Veldhuis JD, Straume M, Iranmanesh A, et al. Secretory process regularity monitors neuroendocrine feedback and feedforward signaling strength in humans. Am J Physiol 2001;280:R721-R729.
114. Veldhuis JD, Pincus SM. Orderliness of hormone release patterns: a complementary measure to conventional pulsatile and circadian analyses. Eur J Endocrinol 1998;138:358-362.
115. Pincus SM, Veldhuis JD, Mulligan T, Iranmanesh A, Evans WS. Effects of age on the irregularity of LH and FSH serum concentrations in women and men. Am J Physiol 1997;273:E989-E995.
116. Veldhuis JD, Faunt LM, Johnson ML. Analysis of nonequilibrium dynamics of bound, free, and total plasma ligand concentrations over time following nonlinear secretory inputs: evaluation of the kinetics of two or more hormones pulsed into compartments containing multiple variable-affinity binding proteins. Meth Enzymol 1994;240:349-377.
117. Sodergard R, Backstrom T, Shanbhag V, Carstensen H. Calculation of free and bound fractions of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta to human plasma proteins at body temperature. J Steroid Biochem 1982;16:801-810.
118. Pardridge WM, Mietus LJ. Transport of steroid hormones through the rat blood-brain barrier. Primary role of albumin-bound hormone. J Clin Invest 1979;64:145-154.
119. Nankin HR, Calkins JH. Decreased bioavailable testosterone in aging normal and impotent men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63:1418-1423.
120. Longcope C, Goldfield SRW, Brambilla DJ, McKinlay J. Androgens, estrogens, and sex hormone-binding globulin in middle-aged men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:1442-1446.
121. Manni A, Pardridge WM, Cefalu W, et al. Bioavailability of albumin-bound testosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;61:705-710.
122. Nahoul K, Roger M. Age-related decline of plasma bioavailable testosterone in adult men. J Steroid Biochem 1990;35:293-299.
123. Veldhuis JD, Urban RJ, Beitins I, Blizzard RM, Johnson ML, Dufau ML. Pathophysiological features of the pulsatile secretion of biologically active luteinizing hormone in man. J Steroid Biochem 1989;33:739-750.
Was this article helpful?
Are Menopause Symptoms Playing Havoc With Your Health and Relationships? Are you tired of the mood swings, dryness, hair loss and wrinkles that come with the change of life? Do you want to do something about it but are wary of taking the estrogen or antidepressants usually prescribed for menopause symptoms?