The proximate regulator of testicular function is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is produced in neurons scattered throughout the anterior hypothalamus. When it reaches the anterior pituitary, GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH and FSH are released into the circulation in bursts and activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively, that stimulate testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The system is tightly regulated and is maintained at a proper set point by the negative feedback effects of testicular steroids and inhibin-B. Testicular function is also influenced by multiple internal and external environmental factors.

From: Male Hypogonadism: Basic, Clinical, and Therapeutic Principles Edited by: S. J. Winters © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

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Eliminating Stress and Anxiety From Your Life

It seems like you hear it all the time from nearly every one you know I'm SO stressed out!? Pressures abound in this world today. Those pressures cause stress and anxiety, and often we are ill-equipped to deal with those stressors that trigger anxiety and other feelings that can make us sick. Literally, sick.

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