Ampa

20 ms

20 ms

Unpaired control Naive control Fear-conditioned

BOX 2, cont'd (B) Fear-conditioning results in potentiation of evoked EPSCs in the amygdala. (a) Plot of percent startle potentiation in fear-conditioned and unpaired control animals. (b) Composite EPSCs in amygdala neurons in trained and untrained animals, evoked with constant input stimulations of 9V. (c) AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked with input stimulations of 9 V. Reproduced from McKernan and Shinnick-Gallagher (55). (C) The effect of paired and unpaired training on CS-evoked field potentials and behavior. Sessions are numbered 1-7; one session occurred per day, except that sessions 3 and 4 occurred on the same day. (a) CS-evoked field potentials from a conditioned rat (top) and a control rat (bottom), covering the full time course of the experiment. Quantitative analysis was performed on the first negative (downward)-going deflection (dot). Previous studies of these waveforms have concentrated on this feature because it has the shortest latency, is reliably present, coincides with local evoked unit activity, shows experience-dependent plasticity, and reflects transmission from the auditory thalamus to the amygdala. The other components of the waveform visible in these examples are not reliably present across trials and subjects, and little is known about their origin and mechanisms.

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