Epic Soccer Training Improve Soccer Skills

Soccer Training Programs by the Pros

Get Instant Access

Knee injuries are common at all levels of sporting activities, and range from minor to severe. Studies indicate that MRI is a reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tool in evaluating the extent of acute knee injury. A systematic approach to the assessment of key structures, including bone, cartilage, menisci, and ligaments requires detailed knowledge of normal anatomy and anatomic variants, as well as the expected MRI appearance of injury. In addition, using mechanism-based injury patterns can help in recognizing the complete extent of complex knee injuries.


[1] Miyasaka KC, Daniel DM, Stone ML, et al. The incidence of knee ligament injuries in the general population. Am J Knee Surg 1991;4(1):3-8.

[2] Arendt E, Dick R. Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer: NCAA data and review of literature. Am J Sports Med 1995;23(6):694-701.

[3] Agel J, Arendt EA, Bershadsky B. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in national collegiate athletic association basketball and soccer: a 13-year review. Am J Sports Med 2005;33(4): 524-30.

[4] Hardaker WTJr, Garrett WE Jr, Bassett FH 3rd. Evaluation of acute traumatic hemarthrosis of the knee joint. South Med J 1990;83:640-4.

[5] Mitsou A, Vallianatos P. Clinical diagnosis of ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament: a comparison between the Lachman test and the anterior drawer sign. Injury 1988;19: 427-8.

[6] Simonsen O, Jensen J, Mouritsen P, et al. The accuracy of clinical examination of injury of the knee joint. Injury 1984;16:96-101.

[7] Oei EH, Nikken JJ, Verstijnen AC, et al. MR imaging of the menisci and cruciate ligaments: a systematic review. Radiology 2003;226:837-48.

[8] Oei EH, Nikken JJ, Ginai AZ, etal. Acute knee trauma: value of a short dedicated extremity MR imaging examination for prediction of subsequent treatment. Radiology 2005;234: 125-33.

[9] Maurer EJ, Kaplan PA, Dussault RG, etal. Acutely injured knee: effect of MR imaging on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Radiology 1997;204:799-805.

[10] Bui-Mansfield LT, Youngberg RA, Warme W, et al. Potential cost savings of MR imaging obtained before arthroscopy of the knee: evaluation of 50 consecutive patients. AJR 1997;168:913-8.

[11] Ruwe PA, Wright J, Randall RL, etal. Can MR imaging effectively replace diagnostic arthroscopy? Radiology 1992;183:335-9.

[12] Spiers ASD, Meagher T, Ostlere SJ, etal. Can MRI of the knee affect arthroscopic practice? J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993;75-B:49-52.

[13] Nikken JJ, Oei EHG, Ginai AZ, etal. Acute peripheral joint injury: cost and effectiveness of low-field-strength MR imaging—results of randomized controlled trail. Radiology 2005; 236:958-67.

[14] Boden SD, Labropoulos PA, Vailas JC. MR scanning of the acutely injured knee: sensitive, but is it cost effective? Arthroscopy 1990;6(4):306-10.

[15] Rubin DA, Kettering JM, Towers JD, et al. MR imaging of knees having isolated and combined ligament injuries. AJR 1998;170:1207-13.

[16] BarnettMJ. MR diagnosis of internal derangements of the knee: effect of field strength of efficacy. AJR 1993;161:115-8.

[17] Cotton A, Delfaut E, Demondion X, et al. MR imaging of the knee at 0.2 and 1.5 T: correlation with surgery. AJR 2000;174:1093-7.

[18] Blackmon GB, Major NM, Helms CA. Comparison of fast spin-echo versus conventional spin-echo MRI for evaluation meniscal tears. AJR 2005;184:1740-3.

[19] Cheung LP, Li KCP, HollettMD, et al. Meniscal tears of the knee: accuracy of detection with fast spin-echo MR imaging and arthroscopic correlation in 293 patients. Radiology 1997;203:508-12.

[20] Helms CA. The meniscus: recent advances in MR imaging of the knee. AJR 2002;179: 1115-22.

[21] Rubin DA, KneelandJB, Listerud J, etal. MR diagnosis of meniscal tears of the knee: value of fast spin-echo vs conventional spin-echo pulse sequences. AJR 1994;162:1131-5.

[22] Buckwalter KA, Braunstein EM, JanizekDB, etal. MR imaging of meniscal tears: narrow versus conventional window width photography. Radiology 1993;187:827-30.

[23] Crues JV, MinkJ, Levy T, et al. Meniscal tears of the knee: accuracy of MR imaging. Radiology 1987;164:445-8.

[24] Lotysch M, MinkJ, CruesJV, etal. Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of meniscal injuries. Magn Reson Imaging 1986;4:94.

[25] Reicher MA, Hartzman S, Duckwiler GR, et al. Meniscal injuries: detection using MR imaging. Radiology 1986;159:753-7.

[26] Stoller DW, Martin C, CruesJV, et al. Meniscal: pathologic correlation with MR imaging. Radiology 1987;163:731-5.

[27] De Smet AA, Norris MA, Yandow DR, et al. MR diagnosis of meniscal tears of the knee: importance of high signal in the meniscus that extends to the surface. AJR 1993;161:101-7.

[28] Kaplan PA, Nelson NL, Garvin KL, etal. MR of the knee: the significance of high signal in the meniscus that does not clearly extend to the surface. AJR 1991;156:333-6.

[29] Jee W-H, McCauleyTR, KimJ-M, etal. Meniscal tear configurations: categorization with MR imaging. AJR 2003;180:93-7.

[30] Tuckman GA, Miller WJ, Remo JW, et al. Radial tears of the menisci: MR findings. AJR 1994;163:395-400.

[31] Wright DH, DeSmetAA, Norris M. Bucket-handle tears of the medial and lateral menisci of the knee: value of MR imaging in detecting displaced fragments. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165(3):621-5.

[32] Vande Berg BC, Malghem J, Polivache P, etal. Meniscal tears with fragments displaced in notch and recesses of knee: MR imaging with arthroscopic comparison. Radiology 2005;234:842-50.

[33] Ryu KN, Kim IS, Kim EJ, etal. MR imaging of tears of discoid lateral menisci. AJR 1998;171: 963-7.

[34] Silverman JM, MinkJH, Deutsch AL. Discoid menisci of the knee: MR imaging appearance. Radiology 1989;173:351-4.

[35] Cho JM, Suh J-S, Na J-B, et al. Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging. Skeletal Radiol 1999;28:189-95.

[36] Sanders TG, Linares RC, Lawhorn KW, etal. Oblique meniscomeniscal ligament: another potential pitfall for a meniscal tear—anatomic description and appearance at MR imaging in three cases. Radiology 1999;213:213-6.

[37] Shankman S, Beltran J, Melamed E, etal. Anterior horn of the lateral meniscus: another potential pitfall in MR imaging of the knee. Radiology 1997;204:1 81-4.

[38] VaheyTN, Bennett HT, Arrington LE, etal. MR imaging of the knee: pseudotear of the lateral menisus caused by the meniscofemoral ligament. AJR 1990;154:1237-9.

[39] Barry KP, Mesgarzadeh M, Triolo J, et al. Accuracy of MRI patterns in evaluating anterior cruciate ligament tears. Skeletal Radiol 1996;25:365-70.

[40] Brandser EA, Riley MA, Berbaum KS, etal. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury: independent value of primary and secondary signs. AJR 1996;167:121-6.

[41] HaTPT, Li KCP, Beaulieu CF, etal. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: fast spin-echo MR imaging with arthroscopic correlation in 217 examinations. AJR 1998;170:1215-9.

[42] Lee JK, Yao L, Phelps CT, etal. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: MR imaging compared with arthroscopy and clinical tests. Radiology 1988;166:861-4.

[43] McCauleyTR, Moses M, Kier R, etal. MR diagnosis of tears of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: importance of ancillary findings. AJR 1994;162:1 15-9.

[44] TungGA, Davis LM, Wiggins ME, etal. Tears of the anterior cruciate ligament: primaryand secondary signs at MR imaging. Radiology 1993;188:661-7.

[45] Lee K, Siegel MJ, Lau DM, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament tears: MR imaging-based diagnosis in a pediatric population. Radiology 1999;213:697-704.

[46] Murphy BJ, Smith RL, Uribe JW, et al. Bone signal abnormalities in the posterolateral tibia and lateral femoral condyle in complete tears of the anterior cruciate ligament: a specific sign? Radiology 1992;182:221-4.

[47] Rosen MA, Jackson DW, Berger PE. Occult osseous lesions documented by magnetic resonance imaging associated with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. Arthroscopy 1991; 7(1):45-51.

[48] SnearlyWN, Kaplan PA, DussaultRG. Lateral-compartmentbonecontusionsinadolescents with intact anterior cruciate liagements. Radiology 1996;198:205-8.

[49] VaheyTN, HuntJE, Shelbourne KD. Anterior translocation of the tibia at MR imaging: a secondary sign of anterior cruciate ligament tear. Radiology 1993;187:817-9.

[50] Roychowdhury S, Fitzgerald SW, Sonin AH, et al. Using MR imaging to diagnose partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament: valure of axial images. AJR 1997;168: 1487-91.

[51] Yao L, Gentili A, Petrus L, et al. Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis? Skeletal Radiol 1995;24:247-51.

[52] Fitzgerald SW, Remer EM, Friedman H, et al. MR evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament: value of supplementing sagittal images with coronal and axial images. AJR 1993;160:1233-7.

[53] GroverJS, Bassett LW, Gross ML, etal. Posterior cruciate ligament: MR imaging. Radiology 1990;174:527-30.

[54] Sonin AH, Fitzgerald SW, Friedman H, etal. Posterior cruciate ligament injury: MR imaging diagnosis and patterns of injury. Radiology 1994;190:455-8.

[55] Sonin AH, Fitzgerald SW, Hoff FL, etal. MR imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament: normal, abnormal, and associated injury patterns. Radiographics 1995;15:551-61.

[56] Hayes CW, Brigido MK, Famadar DA, et al. Mechanism-based pattern approach to classification of complex injuries of the knee depicted at MR imaging. Radiographics 2000;20: 121-34.

[57] Schweitzer ME, Tran D, Deely DM, et al. Medial collateral ligament injuries: evaluation of multiple signs, prevalence and location of associated bone bruises, and assessment with MR imaging. Radiology 1995;194:825-9.

[58] Yao L, Dungan D, Seeger LL. MR imaging of tibial collateral ligament injury: comparison with clinical examination. Skeletal Radiol 1994;23:521-4.

[59] Seebacher JR, Inglis AE, Marshall JL, et al. The structure of the posterolateral aspect of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg 1982;64-A:536-41.

[60] Miller TT, Gladden P, Staron RB, etal. Posterolateral stabilizers of the knee: anatomy and injuries assessed with MR imaging. AJR 1997;169:1641-7.

[61] Recondo JA, Salvador E, Villanua JA, et al. Lateral stabilizing structures of the knee: functional anatomy and injuries assessed with MR imaging. Radiographics 2000;20: 91-102.

[62] Chen FS, Rokito AS, Pitman MI. Acute and chronic posterolateral rotatory instability of the knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2000;8:97-1 10.

[63] Huang G-S, Yu JS, Munshi M, etal. Avulsion fracture of the head of the fibula (the "arcuate" sign): MR imaging findings predictive of injuries to the posterolateral ligaments and posterior cruciate ligament. AJR 2003;180:381-7.

[64] Juhng S-K, LeeJK, Choi S-S, etal. MR evaluation of the "arcuate''sign of posterolateral knee instability. AJR 2002;178:583-8.

[65] Disler DG, Recht MP, McCauley TR. MR imaging of articular cartilage. Skeletal Radiol 2000;29:367-77.

[66] Kirsch MD, Fitzgerald SW, Friedman H, etal. Transient lateral patellar dislocation: diagnosis with MR imaging. AJR 1993;161:109-13.

[67] Lance E, Deutsch AL, Mink JH. Prior lateral patellar dislocation: MR imaging findings. Radiology 1993;189:905-7.

[68] Virolainen H, Visuri T, Kuusela T. Acute dislocation of the patella: MR findings. Radiology 1993;189:243-6.

[69] Kendell SD, Helms CA, Rampton JW, et al. MRI appearance of chondral delamination injuries of the knee. AJR 2005;184:1486-9.

[70] Arndt WF, Truax AL, Barnett FM, et al. MR diagnosis of bone contusions of the knee: comparison of coronal T2-weighted fast spin-echo with fat saturation and fast spin-echo STIR images with conventional STIR images. AJR 1996;166:119-24.

[71] Kapelov SR, Teresi LM, Bradley WG, et al. Bone contusions of the knee: increased lesion detection with fast spin-echo MR imaging with spectroscopic fat saturation. Radiology 1993;189:901-4.

[72] Yao L, Lee JK. Occult intraosseous fracture: detection with MR imaging. Radiology 1988;167:749-51.

[73] Palmer WE, Levine SM, Dupuy DE. Knee and shoulder fractures: association of fracture detection and marrow edema on MR images with mechanism of injury. Radiology 1997;204: 395-401.

[74] Weber WN, Neumann CH, BarakosJA, etal. Lateral tibial rim (Segond) fractures: MR imaging characteristics. Radiology 1991;180:731-4.

[75] Escobedo EM, Mills WJ, Hunter JC. The "reverse Segond'' fracture: association with a tear of the posterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus. AJR 2002;178(4):979-83.

[76] Hall FM, Hochman MG. Medial Segond-type fracture: cortical avulsion off the medial tibial plateau associated with tears of the posterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus. Skeletal Radiol 1997;26(9):553-5.

[77] Sanders TG, Medynski MA, Feller JF, et al. Bone contusion patterns of the knee at MR imaging: footprint of the mechanism of injury. Radiographics 2000;20:135-51.

[78] Kaplan PA, Gehl RH, Dussault RG, et al. Bone contusions of the posterior lip of the medial tibial plateau (contrecoup injury) and associated internal derangements of the knee at MR imaging. Radiology 1999;21 1:747-53.

[79] DietzGW, Wilcox DM, MontgomeryJB. Segond tibial condyle fracture: lateral capsular ligament avulsion. Radiology 1986;159:467-9.

[80] Elias DA, White LM, Fithian DC. Acute lateral patellar dislocation at MR imaging: injury patterns of medial patellar soft-tissue restraints and osteochondral injuries of the inferomedial patella. Radiology 2002;225:736-43.

[81] Spritzer CE, Courneya DL, Burk DL, etal. Medical retinacular complex injury in acute patellar dislocation: MR findings and surgical implications. AJR 1997;168:117-22.





Lumbar Spine Capsular Pattern

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Soccer Fitness 101

Soccer Fitness 101

Be a star on the field in no time! Get Fit For The Soccer Field In 10 Easy Steps! With soccer season looming just around the corner it’s never too early to start getting ready. Soccer is an intense game, and it’s going to take a lot of work on your part to make sure that you’re ready to stay ahead of your competition out on that field.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment