Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction
ACL tears are the most common complete ligamentous injury in the knee  and given the sequelae of degenerative change and meniscal tears commonly encountered in ACL-deficient knees , ACL reconstructions are performed with increasing frequency particularly in patients with an active lifestyle . Reconstructions may be intra-articular, extra-articular, or combined, with the intra-articular technique being the preferred choice currently. The choice of reconstruction graft material includes autograft or allograft bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB), hamstrings (semitendinosus and gracilis), Achilles tendon, and fascia lata with BPTB and hamstrings being the most frequently used construct grafts . The use of prosthetic grafts such as scaffolds, permanent prostheses, and augmentation devices has largely fallen out of favor because of high failure rates and synovitis as a result of intra-articular particulate debris .
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