Postoperative Ligaments

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

ACL tears are the most common complete ligamentous injury in the knee [27] and given the sequelae of degenerative change and meniscal tears commonly encountered in ACL-deficient knees [28], ACL reconstructions are performed with increasing frequency particularly in patients with an active lifestyle [29]. Reconstructions may be intra-articular, extra-articular, or combined, with the intra-articular technique being the preferred choice currently. The choice of reconstruction graft material includes autograft or allograft bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB), hamstrings (semitendinosus and gracilis), Achilles tendon, and fascia lata with BPTB and hamstrings being the most frequently used construct grafts [30]. The use of prosthetic grafts such as scaffolds, permanent prostheses, and augmentation devices has largely fallen out of favor because of high failure rates and synovitis as a result of intra-articular particulate debris [31].

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