Donna G Blankenbaker MD Arthur A De Smet MD

Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, E3/311 CSC, Madison, WI 53792-3252, USA

his article continues the discussion begun in an earlier article in which the role of ultrasound in assessing sports injuries of the upper extremity was compared with that of MRI [1]. The interested reader is directed to that publication for additional information regarding the basic principles of ultrasound imaging of the extremities.

Sonography has become a well-established method for imaging of both the upper and lower extremities; however, reports providing surgical confirmation of the accuracy of sonography for upper extremity injuries are limited in number and study size, except for those regarding rotator cuff tears. In contrast, so-nography has been used extensively for many types of soft-tissue injuries in the lower extremity, so there is significant literature confirming the accuracy of so-nography for many types of pathology.

As a result, this article concentrates on the sonographic findings of lower extremity injury and pathology often seen in those participating in sports. The accuracy of sonography is compared with that of MRI when those data are available. The sonographic findings and accuracy are discussed for pathology affecting the hip, knee, ankle, and foot, as well as for muscle, tendon, and ligament injury.

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