Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety

Shyness And Social Anxiety System

The Shyness and Social Anxiety System is just as its name says. It is an e-book wherein in-depth discussions about the symptoms, causes and treatment for shyness and social anxiety are made. It is then written for individuals whose extreme shyness or social anxiety prevent them from enjoying a full life filled with social interactions among their family, friends and acquaintances in gatherings during holidays, outings and parties. The author Sean Cooper also suffered from shyness and social anxiety disorder so much so that he tried every trick in the book yet to no avail. And then he set out to conquer his own fears by researching into the psychology, principles and practices behind these two debilitating mental health issues. Continue reading...

Shyness And Social Anxiety System Summary


4.7 stars out of 15 votes

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Author: Sean Cooper
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My Shyness And Social Anxiety System Review

Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Dissolve Social Anxiety Home Recovery Program

Here are the benefits youll receive when you sign up for the Dissolve Social Anxiety Program: Get to the Root of your Social Anxiety so you can fully recover. Find out why its Not You thats the cause of your Social Anxiety Disorder. Breakdown Beliefs that fuel social anxiety, to start making changes immediately. Discover how emotions are controlling you, and learn how to stop emotions from controlling your life. Create a new belief system and life story that will become an unshakable foundation so social anxiety never controls you, ever again. Develop new Life Skills, not only to conquer social anxiety, but dissolve virtually Any chronic anxiety or depression that comes along with your social phobia. Get Social Confidence in the way that works best for you, not someone else (this is not a cookie cutter approach Im teaching here). Learn and sharpen social skills to have great social interactions with anyone. Program Features: Instant Access to Twelve (12) life-changing modules to build the skill set to finally dissolve your social anxiety. Practical & Experiential Learning guided exercises to help create new awareness, anxiety reduction/elimination, and new possibilities for Self-Confidence And Social Action. Each module has homework to help reinforce the learning, along with practices to support you in your recovery and transforming your life. Customization for Your specific social anxiety issues and recovery goals. Complete with streaming Video Modules, downloadable MP3 Audio files, Pdf handouts (Just your web browser and Adobe Reader are required) Immediately delivery with a personal membership login for the modules (and question submissions if you purchase a higher level package) Continue reading...

Dissolve Social Anxiety Home Recovery Program Summary

Contents: Online Course
Author: David Hamilton
Official Website:

Preface to the Second Edition

In the first edition of this book it was argued that the uniqueness of human intelligence is the consequence of a very large brain and man's outstanding specializations in communication and tool use. No other life form on Earth is able to communicate in such a detailed manner by both vision and language and is able to handle so many diverse objects and tools. Yet apes, monkeys, dogs, elephants, seals, dolphins and even corvids all show highly intelligent behavior, which in recent years has become increasingly understood and appreciated. Palaeanthropologists argue that exceptional human intelligence arose from keen vision acquired in the rainforest, an upright walk together with a complete freeing of the hands for tool use adopted after our ancestors entered the open savannahs, and from our intimate social interactions in group living. Since our technological intelligence is based on the development of hands it is intimately connected with life on land. This is seen, for instance, by...

Ehealth as Ubiquitous Environment lor Transactions

The brief definition of e-health proposed by Lee et al. is based on five key elements the provision of the contents, assuring the connectivity, inclusion of economic mechanisms (commerce), creation of community and support for clinical care. The cluster of services based on the provision of the contents encompasses presentation of the information, assistance at information search, decision support and telelearning. The aspect of connectivity is particularly important in medical information systems, medical services and systems integration, electronic transactions and clinical trials. Social interactions in the context of e-health comprise personal contacts, information exchange, emotional support and development of communities. Essential in the e-health environment, according to some authors, is the capability of income generation and self-financing of the enterprise. The rationale for e-health development results not only from a desire to achieve returns from investments but also...

Interventions 141 Prevention

In 1996 Yung and McGorry defined the so-called schizophrenia prodrome , characterised by sleep disturbance, depressed mood, social withdrawal, suspiciousness, perplexity, change in sense of self or others, poor appetite, raising thoughts, impulsivity or disinhibition, memory problems, anxiety, anger, irritability, deterioration of functioning, poor concentration, loss of motivation, fatigue perceptual changes, somatic complaints, thought blocking, odd behaviour and elevated mood. Although this is a very unspe-cific list of symptoms, with some of these being quite common in adolescents in puberty, the American Psychiatric Association defined prodromal schizophrenia in DSM III, the diagnostic and statistical manual for the classification of psychiatric diseases in the United States. Here we find in the definition such unspecific behaviour as social isolation and withdrawal, impairment in role functioning, peculiar behaviour, impairment of personal hygiene, blunted or inappropriate...

Consequences of Intractable Epilepsy

In addition to this clear medical injury, the social consequences of intractable seizures can be disabling. Psychosocial patterns and independence are not established normally through the developing and adolescent years. A patient with intractable seizures cannot hold a driving license, and is so precluded from many social interactions and vocational opportunities. The public loss of body control that occurs during major seizures can be psychologically and socially disabling both personally and in the work place (46). This social impairment can have major consequences even after successful epilepsy surgery that renders the patient seizure-free (47-49).

Memory Repression And Recovered Memory

This respect, it does not seem to be possible to distinguish between people who do not report abuse and those who do not remember it among the latter, it does not seem possible to distinguish forgetting that reflects repression, dissociation, other pathological processes, and benign processes (Kihlstrom, 1995). Nevertheless, when clinicians are faced with clients who experience themselves remembering a previously forgotten trauma, they must recognize the clinical relevance of this equally, however, clinicians need to recognize that memories are affected by factors like suggestion, transference, personal values, social interactions, and fantasies associated with the event and its remembering (Nash, 1994).

Physiological regulators

Many other physiological factors may be related to viral infection, viral shedding, and viral persistence. These include those related to social interactions, nutrition, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and rainfall), intake of plant secondary chemicals, and even the pH or presence of protein in the urine (which may be influenced by diet). Our knowledge of these potential relationships is scant.

Disorders of adult personality and behaviour F60F69

This block includes a variety of conditions and behaviour patterns of clinical significance which tend to be persistent and appear to be the expression of the individual's characteristic lifestyle and mode of relating to himself or herself and others. Some of these conditions and patterns of behaviour emerge early in the course of individual development, as a result of both constitutional factors and social experience, while others are acquired later in life. Specific personality disorders (F60.-), mixed and other personality disorders (F61.-), and enduring personality changes (F62.-) are deeply ingrained and enduring behaviour patterns, manifesting as inflexible responses to a broad range of personal and social situations. They represent extreme or significant deviations from the way in which the average individual in a given culture perceives, thinks, feels and, particularly, relates to others. Such behaviour patterns tend to be stable and to encompass multiple domains of behaviour...

Childrens Long Term Memory of Childhood Events

In this chapter I first review research demonstrating young children's abilities to recall the past. I then discuss several studies examining long-term retention of these early memories into middle childhood. A consideration of this research leads to a reconceptualization of childhood amnesia that is based on several factors, including distinctiveness, rehearsal, and language development. In the final section I outline a model of childhood amnesia based on the complex interplay of these factors in specific social interactions.

Explaining Childhood Amnesia

Moreover, children learn narrative skills in social contexts. When children first begin referencing the past, they do so in social interactions, usually with parents. In fact, it is often the parent who initiates the conversation (Eisenberg, 1985). Talking about the past with adults facilitates memory in two ways. First, it provides a form of rehearsal. Each time an event is talked about, each time it is accessed, it strengthens the event memory. But just as important, by participating in discussions about past experiences with adults, children learn the conventionalized forms for organizing and reporting the past.

Psychosocial Factors That Influence Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis And Chd Risk In Female Monkeys

The distinguishing behavioral characteristics of subordinates are depicted in Figure 15.1. Subordinate females are the recipients of about three times the hostility or aggression of their dominant counterparts. They are groomed less, i.e. they spend less time in positive affiliative behavior. They spend more time vigilantly scanning their social group than dominants. The purpose of the vigilant scanning appears to be to track and avoid dominants in order to avoid aggressive interactions. Subordinates also spend significantly more time alone than dominant females (13-15). Primates typically communicate non-verbally by touch, facial expressions and body language or postures. Although human primates also are able to communicate with language, they still rely heavily on non-verbal communication. When a female monkey spends time alone, it means that the monkey is not in physical contact or within touching distance of another monkey. Rather, the monkey is socially isolated. This is...

Accessing the Range of Hivhcvrelated Services That Psychiatric Patients Need

The initial diagnosis of HIV infection may occur when a patient first becomes infected, in advanced AIDS, or at any time in between. Shock and disbelief may be followed by depression, anxiety, and fear in adjusting to having contracted a serious and still potentially deadly illness. In many nonindustrialized countries AIDS remains a rapidly terminal condition. Untreated depression and hopelessness may be associated with continuing risk behavior, even suicidal ideation (Liberman et al. 1986). Like serious mental illness, HIV and AIDS can be highly stigmatizing, possibly resulting in rejection, abandonment, and further social isolation. If a worsening of psychiatric symptoms follows the initial HIV diagnosis, the most effective intervention is individual counseling and supportive therapy geared to both the current mental status of the patient and his or her knowledge and understanding of HIV infection (Broder et al. 1994). For HIV-infected psychiatric patients who are asymptomatic,...

Limits of the Abstract Standard Hard Cases and the Question of Individual Justice

However, this does not settle all of the problems with the treatment enhancement distinction even on the macro-level of public health. The first difficulty may arise when it comes to what could be called coupled phenomena , i.e. certain physical or mental features which by no means resemble a disease but may cause effects that certainly do. Then, in trying to treat or prevent the latter one must try to alter the former trait. To take some vivid examples If having a specific physical feature - such as black skin, or a short stature, or a hooked nose, or a disposition to obesity, or to shyness, or something similar - is coupled (at least statistically) with significant disadvantages in a society, then having one of these features might predispose its possessor to psychological problems, such as depression, that we do in fact con (1) An adult patient with a history of bipolar disorder had been stabilized on lithium for some years. He remained shy, however, and was referred to an...

Same Occupation Different Context

Other researchers have explored what it is like for women to work in skewed groups composed of 85 percent or more men where they operate as tokens (Kanter, 1977). Looking across a wide range of diverse occupations from military cadets to transit operatives and firefighters, a consistent pattern emerges (see Zimmer, 1988 Yoder, 1991, for reviews). Because of their difference and heightened visibility, these women report high levels of stress, social isolation, role conflicts, sexual harassment, wage inequities, and blocked upward mobility. These negative outcomes are intensified and expanded to other costs for women who differ from the dominant group of workers along multiple dimensions, such as African-American women firefighters (Yoder & Aniakudo, 1997) and police officers (Martin, 1994). These women describe continual attempts to subordinate and exclude them, oftentimes coming from multiple sources including African American male and white female co-workers.

Clinical Manifestations

There are several major risk factors for malnutrition in the elderly that may serve as clinical clues to the diagnosis. Poverty, social isolation, dependence or disability, chronic multiple medications, and dental disorders all increase the risk of malnutrition in elderly adults. Obviously, many comorbidities are also risk factors (e.g., depression, stroke, congestive heart failure) and have specific symptoms and signs associated with the underlying disorder. Clinical clues of global undernutrition in elderly patients include low body weight, muscle wasting, sparse thinning hair, flaking dermatitis, cheilosis angular stomatitis, poor wound healing, and peripheral edema. Specific symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities associated with micronutrient deficiency are shown in Table 1.

What How and Why Questions

Most animal species can be identified by certain behaviors. Such behaviors have been shaped by natural selection and are species-specific. On the other hand, behavioral flexibility can be extremely valuable to an animal that has to respond to changing conditions and complex situations, as in social interactions. Therefore, to varying degrees, behavior is modifiable by learning.

Can Nonhuman Primates Attribute Mental Agency to Others

The psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen, when investigating autism (1999), introduced the term intentionality detector as a marker of innate knowledge of other minds. The term intentionality in this context refers not simply to goal-directed behavior but more specifically to the attribution of mental processes in the other that are recognized as similar to one's own experience. Baron-Cohen notes that nonhuman primates can be Machiavellian in their social interactions, but this does not demonstrate that they have a theory of other minds, that they are mind readers. Their Machiavellian actions may be prompted by the contextual perceptions of specific behaviors in the other and is not to be taken as evidence of their being able to detect a complex intentionality in the other. Baron-Cohen concludes that it is unclear whether or not nonhuman primates possess this higherorder attribute of intentionality.

Summary and synthesis

Among wild primates, a large number of field studies have examined patterns of habitat use, demography, and social interactions. We also know that primates harbor an incredible diversity of parasites and infectious diseases (Chapman et al. 2005a Nunn and Altizer 2005). Yet surprisingly few studies have linked host characteristics, including abundance, life history traits, and behavior with patterns of parasite occurrence. Furthermore, no comprehensive experimental studies addressing parasite ecology have been conducted in wild primate populations (even though such experiments are feasible, Janson 2000). Inferences of the population impacts of primate parasites are therefore made indirectly, except where conspicuous epidemics have decimated previously intact primate populations (Chapter 1). One priority for the future is to collect comprehensive monitoring data for a variety of disease-causing agents in wild primates (Chapter 7), including those shared with human hosts (Chapter 8,...

Are Depression Loneliness And Lack Of Social Support Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Depression, social isolation (loneliness), lack of emotional support from family and friends are independently associated with heart disease and the risk of heart attack and death. This is very difficult to treat, as these people are invisible and unlikely to seek help. They may resort to drugs, alcohol, and, in extreme cases, suicide.

Bees food quality and body temperature

Increasing Body Temperature Bees

The beauty of infrared thermography is that it does not disturb social interactions such as the dancing behaviour of honeybees or the unloading of nectar by trophallaxis. Graduated thermal behaviour occurs during food unloading in the hive as well as at the feeding site. The temperature of dancing bees recruiting their nestmates increases with food quality and the number of brood cells, and decreases with distance of the food source from the hive and the amount of stored honey (Stabentheiner 1991, 2001). Foraging bees returning from feeders with high flow rates (8.2 mlmin 1 of 50 per cent w w sucrose solution) have high Tth during trophallaxis and transfer the food quickly. The receiver bees also raise their Tth during trophallaxis, and Farina and Wainselboim (2001) use a thermogram to show a 3.7oC increase in Tth of a receiver bee during 18 s of food transfer, equivalent to a heating rate of 12.3oCmin 1 During this time, Tth of the donor bee was relatively unchanged. Figure 6.16...

Biophotonicsa New Frontier

Steps Cytometry

We live in an era of technological revolutions that continue to impact our lives and constantly redefine the breadth of our social interactions. The past century has witnessed many technological breakthroughs, one of which is photonics. Photonics utilizes photons instead of electrons to transmit, process, and store information and thus provides a tremendous gain in capacity and speed in information technology. Photonics is an all-encompassing light-based optical technology that is being hailed as the dominant technology for this new millennium. The invention of lasers, a concentrated source of monochromatic and highly directed light, has revolutionized photonics. Since the demonstration of the first laser in 1960, laser light has touched all aspects of our lives, from home entertainment, to high-capacity information storage, to fiber-optic telecommunications, thus opening up numerous opportunities for photonics.

F201 Hebephrenic schizophrenia

A form of schizophrenia in which affective changes are prominent, delusions and hallucinations fleeting and fragmentary, behaviour irresponsible and unpredictable, and mannerisms common. The mood is shallow and inappropriate, thought is disorganized, and speech is incoherent. There is a tendency to social isolation. Usually the prognosis is poor because of the rapid development of negative symptoms, particularly flattening of affect and loss of volition. Hebephrenia should normally be diagnosed only in adolescents or young adults.

Human brains became larger

The earliest members of Homo sapiens had larger brains than members of the earlier species of Homo. Brain size in the lineage increased rapidly, reaching modern size by about 160,000 years ago. This striking change was probably favored by an increasingly complex social life. The ability of group members to communicate with one another would have been valuable in cooperative hunting and gathering and for improving one's status in the complex social interactions that

Microhabitats and activity

Climbing on bushes, and burying in the sand (a depth of 20 cm is enough to maintain constant Tb day and night). There was little evidence of basking or of stilting behaviour although Onymacris species have long legs, stilting may be effective only in a narrow range of wind velocities. Microhabitat shifts were thus more important than postural adjustments in controlling Tb (Ward and Seely 1996a). Although the beetles are exposed to high surface temperatures, sand is a readily available thermal refuge providing access to a broad range of Ta. Comparative phylogenetic analysis shows perfect coadaptation of preferred and field Tb in Onymacris (Ward and Seely 1996b). Many desert tenebrionids show biphasic activity to avoid high midday temperatures. However, this is not the case in all biphasic desert beetles. For example, in keratin-feeding Omorgus species (Trogidae) of the Kalahari desert, the relationship between temperature and surface activity is more complex a dawn peak of activity, at...

Social Constructionism

Reality, then, is constructed by mutual agreement that takes place in social interactions. Gender is one of those agreements. As Bohan (1997) argued, one does not have gender one does gender (p. 39, emphasis added West & Zimmerman, 1987). Further, gender is done in specific contexts despite biological sex. In other words, gendered actions are shaped not by the sex but by the social location of the individual (Bohan, 1997, p. 39). Unger and Crawford (1996) described genderas a process rather than as something that people possess . . . more a verb than a noun (p. 146). The traits and characteristics that we typically have considered as qualities of a person are seen by social constructionists as constructed by interactions between people in the context of social expectations and demands (Unger & Crawford, 1996). In particular, gender is constructed in the context of power and status consequently gender and status may be hopelessly confused in the way people organize social reality...

Mechanisms of Survival of Viruses in Nature

Several factors contribute to optimal transmission of viruses. Some relate to properties of the virion itself, others to the extent and nature of shedding from the body, and others to social interactions. Enveloped viruses infecting mucosal surfaces bud from the apical surface of epithelial cells to maximize shedding into the outside world. Obviously, human-to-human transmission will be enhanced by shedding of high liters of virus containing a high proportion of infectious virions. Respiratory viruses tend to be shed over a relatively brief period (a few days) but are expelled in high concentration as an aerosol generated by explosive sneezing or coughing, thus ensuring transmission to dose contacts. Enteric viruses are also shed in large numbers but usually for a longer period (a week or more) in feces, which may contaminate hands, fomites, food, and water. Enveloped respiratory viruses are relatively labile, especially during summer or in the tropics year-round. In contrast, most...

Classification Of Dental Fears

The anxiety disorders include panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorders and anxiety disorders due to a medical condition.

F402 Specific isolated phobias

Phobias restricted to highly specific situations such as proximity to particular animals, heights, thunder, darkness, flying, closed spaces, urinating or defecating in public toilets, eating certain foods, dentistry, or the sight of blood or injury. Though the triggering situation is discrete, contact with it can evoke panic as in agoraphobia or social phobia.

Intermediate Hospital Phase

In the intermediate phase of hospitalization ( 24 h after admission), low-risk patients who might be candidates for early hospital discharge should be identified (58,59). In TIMI II, absence of significant risk factors at the time of emergency room presentation was associated with a 6-wk mortality rate of only 1.5 (6). In the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) trials, Mark et al. (60) reported on 708 patients who underwent early coronary angiography and identified 30 of patients at low risk who were discharged on d 4 after the index event. In GISSI-2, 53 of patients were able to perform an exercise test and had an ejection fraction 40 the 6-mo mortality rate after hospital discharge was

Behavioral Disorders Anxiety Disorders

Panic disorder is a form of anxiety disorder marked by episodes of intense fear. A person with panic disorder may isolate himself or herself or avoid social situations for fear of having a panic attack or in response to attacks. A phobia is an extreme, persistent fear of a specific object or situation. It may center on social situations particular objects, such as animals or blood or activities, such as flying or driving through tunnels. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition marked by recurrent thoughts or images that are persistent and intrusive. To relieve anxiety about these thoughts or images, the person with OCD engages in repetitive behavior that interferes with normal daily activities, although he or she knows that such behavior is unreasonable. OCD is associated with perfectionism and rigidity in behavior.

Parentral Nutrition And Organic Acidaemia

Prepares formula (with assistance) Knows phenylalanine intake is limited Explains PKU diet in simple terms Knows basic reasons for his her clinic visits Begins to deal with diet restrictions in social situations School age (7-10 years) maintain them Makes appropriate diet choices in social situations Adolescence (11+ years)

Basic Models of Health and Disease

But apart from its prima facie plausibility, our trichotomy of treatment -prevention - enhancement is unable to solve all the conceptual problems that arise here, let alone the normative questions that follow in their wake. The next issue to address is how we ought to develop and clarify the difference between interventions that count as treatments (and perhaps preventions) and others that must be considered only enhancements (without being of a disease-preventive character). What basic account of health, disease and treatment should inform our definitions of treatment and enhancement What is treatment from one perspective may not count as treatment from another. The same holds true for enhancements as well. Take for example a form of psychotherapy aimed at liberating a person from her natural shyness from which she might suffer considerably. In a system where shyness has been sufficiently medicalised , perhaps simply for the fact that it can be treated like other disorders that...

The Primate Brain

Tions, and social interactions take place, although even in monkeys and apes the front of the brain manages social awareness and behavior. Since the primate brains of apes and monkeys are so similar to those of humans, many studies of brain function have involved experimentation on these animals, humans' closest relatives. Other mammals such as mice, rats, cats, and dogs have also served as subjects of brain studies that can be related not only to their own specific behavior, but also to how the human brain works in its various component parts. Since neurons are very similar to each other, whether they come from sea slugs, squid, or mammals, experimentation using these animals has produced insight into how all brains and nervous systems work.

Elective mutism

Characterized by a marked, emotionally determined selectivity in speaking, such that the child demonstrates a language competence in some situations but fails to speak in other (definable) situations. The disorder is usually associated with marked personality features involving social anxiety, withdrawal, sensitivity, or resistance.

Faecal Incontinence

The severity of incontinence can range from unintentional elimination of flatus to seepage of liquid faecal matter or, sometimes, to the complete evacuation of bowel contents. These events can be a cause of considerable embarrassment for patients, affecting in the long run their self-esteem and causing in turn social isolation and a poorer quality of life 6 . To maintain normal faecal continence, it is important to preserve the neuromuscular integrity of the rectum, anus and adjoining pelvic floor musculature. It follows that incontinence occurs when there is disruption of one or more mechanisms that maintain continence the disruption is to such an extent that other mechanisms are unable to compensate. Incontinence in patients affected by IBD and by FAP is caused by 5

Posttherapy Contact

Contact with patients can never be reduced to some simple guidelines. Being prescriptive in these matters seldom helps since each case deserves special consideration. Those of us who go on to train as therapists will most probably encounter our training therapists in professional and possibly even social situations. The transition from being a patient to becoming a colleague is likely to arouse a lot of intense feelings. Likewise for the patient who is not a therapist but who establishes a more social contact with his ex-therapist.6 Although consciously this may feel very gratifying, at another level there is often a price to pay. The moment a more friendly, social rapport is established, it becomes impossible to rewind to the patient-therapist relationship. The boundaries of these two relationships are different you can't exchange pleasantries over tea and then discuss your sexual fantasies.

F400 Agoraphobia

A fairly well-defined cluster of phobias embracing fears of leaving home, entering shops, crowds and public places, or travelling alone in trains, buses or planes. Panic disorder is a frequent feature of both present and past episodes. Depressive and obsessional symptoms and social phobias are also commonly present as subsidiary features. Avoidance of the phobic situation is often prominent, and some agoraphobics experience little anxiety because they are able to avoid their phobic situations.


The timing or sequencing of mood changes and social tensions over the course of a polar or space sojourn has been examined, particularly the presence of a ''third quarter phenomenon'' (Bechtel and Berning 1991). This term refers to an increase in negative mood and social interactions during the third quarter of the stay, as personnel contemplate the duration of time remaining before the end of their particular ICE experience. The attention to the third quarter phenomenon can be traced back to Rohrer's (1961) observation of Antarctic and submarine missions, in which he described three stages of crewmember response initial anxiety over new experiences in the mission, mid-mission monotony and depression as tasks become routine, and late-mission euphoria and immature behavior as the end is anticipated. Elements of these stages have been reported during long-term Russian space missions and confinement studies, but empirical evidence for the existence of specific critical phases has been...

Life Essay

Scientific facts are manufactured out of locally available social, material, and symbolic (interpersonally meaningful) resources. These resources become facts through the social interactions of scientists in a process sometimes described as creating order out of disorder. In the wake of a laboratory experiment, the sequence of writings from laboratory notes to published paper moves statements through different modes, each mode more objective than was the previous one. That is, statements describing the experiment progressively erase the subjective, flesh-and-blood human experimenters from the increasingly objective, mechanistic, and technical discussions. Facts attain universal status through the international activities of scientists as agents of professions and governments, and as ambassadors for the legitimacy of these facts.


Relations with friends are at more risk than those with family. Reduced mobility and increased pain make social relations outside the home more difficult to maintain more than half of RA patients report that they visit people less often because of their disease. In addition, patients are less satisfied with these relationships when they do continue. In some cases, social isolation may arise because a patient prefers to avoid the stigma and embarrassment associated with the condition.

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