Workouts for Skiers and Snowboarders
Injury of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the MCPJ, from a sudden abduction injury, was initially described in gamekeepers, but is now more common in skiers. When completely ruptured or detached, the UCL often rolls back on itself and becomes entrapped in the rolled-back position, superficial to the adductor and extensor aponeurosis - the 'Stener' lesion. The Stener lesion occurs in approximately 50 of cases and when present leads to a failure to heal by conservative means.
Combined MCL and ACL injury is reasonably common. This is associated with a tear of the lateral meniscus in 50-60 and of the medial meniscus in 15-20 . Generally, the acute reconstruction of both ligaments is associated with an unacceptably high prevalence of stiffness, so repair is avoided. The vast majority of patients can be treated with cast immobilization for 4 to 6 weeks to allow the MCL to heal, followed by physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Subsequent rotatory instability can be addressed with ACL reconstruction, not less than 6 weeks after the original injury.
261 This scenario (unlike others in our analysis) has no aura of science-fiction at all. There is such a genetic disposition, causing a considerably higher capacity of red blood cells to transport oxygen by increasing the level of a hormone called ery-thropoietin (EPO). That was, for example, the case with Eero Mantyranta, a Finnish Olympic gold medalist in cross-country skiing in 1964 and 1968. With his benign genetic mutation he had a natural advantage over his co-competitors which practically equated to that of manifest doping. He was, of course, not disqualified and nobody seriously thought about downgrading his success in any respect after the true cause of the increased level of his red blood cells was detected.
Water-skiing injury with hamstring avulsion. Axial T2, fat-suppressed (A) and coronal inversion recovery (B) scans reveal complete avulsion (Type III musculotendinous injury) of the conjoined tendons of the left proximal hamstring muscle group from the ischium. The tendons are retracted distally (arrows) with hematoma in the soft tissues and hemorrhage in the retracted muscles. Fig. 7. Water-skiing injury with hamstring avulsion. Axial T2, fat-suppressed (A) and coronal inversion recovery (B) scans reveal complete avulsion (Type III musculotendinous injury) of the conjoined tendons of the left proximal hamstring muscle group from the ischium. The tendons are retracted distally (arrows) with hematoma in the soft tissues and hemorrhage in the retracted muscles.
Slow-twitch fibers are also called red muscle because they contain lots of the oxygen-binding molecule myoglobin, they have many mitochondria, and they are well supplied with blood vessels. These characteristics increase their capacity for oxidative metabolism. The maximum tension a slow-twitch fiber produces is low and develops slowly, but it is highly resistant to fatigue. Because slow-twitch fibers have substantial reserves of fuel (glycogen and fat), their abundant mitochondria can maintain steady, prolonged production of ATP as long as oxygen is available. Muscles with high proportions of slow-twitch fibers are good for long-term aerobic work (that is, work that requires lots of oxygen). Champion long-distance runners, cross-country skiers, swimmers, bicyclists, and other athletes whose activities require endurance have leg and arm muscles consisting mostly of slow-twitch fibers (Figure 47.8).
Heterogeneous T2 elevation 29-year-old male with chronic knee pain and history of skiing injury 1 6 years earlier. (A) Diffuse T2 elevation is present in cartilage of the lateral patella facet on this fat-suppressed, PD-weighted FSE image. (B) More superiorly, there is a flap tear extending to bone (Grade III lesion) associated with abnormal marrow hyperintensity in subchondral bone. Note the decreased signal intensity of cartilage adjacent to the flap tear. This is frequently seen in subacute or chronic cartilage injuries.
Attitudes toward mountain lions began changing in the last decades of the twentieth century. Laws in western states banned or strictly limited hunting. However, as human intrusion into the mountain lion's habitat increased, cats occasionally attacked solitary hikers, joggers, and skiers, stimulating calls for removal of the predators. With great effort and expense, conservationists maintain a relict population of some seventy Florida pan
Anterior cruciate ligament injury in national collegiate athletic association basketball and soccer a 13-year review. Am J Sports Med 2005 33(4) 524-30. 40 Brandser EA, Riley MA, Berbaum KS, etal. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament injury independent value of primary and secondary signs. AJR 1996 167 121-6. 41 HaTPT, Li KCP, Beaulieu CF, etal. Anterior cruciate ligament injury fast spin-echo MR imaging with arthroscopic correlation in 217 examinations. AJR 1998 170 1215-9.
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