The major pigment present in bile is the orange compound bilirubin, an end-product of hemoglobin degradation in the monocyte-macrophage system in the spleen, bone marrow, and liver (Fig. 27.17). Hemoglobin is first converted to biliverdin with the release of iron and globin. Biliverdin is then converted into bilirubin, which is transported in blood bound to albumin. The liver removes bilirubin from the circulation rapidly and conjugates it with glucuronic acid. The glucuronide is secreted into the bile canaliculi through an active carrier-mediated process.
In the small intestine, bilirubin glucuronide is poorly ab-
sorbed. In the colon, however, bacteria deconjugate it, and part of the bilirubin released is converted to the highly soluble, colorless compound called urobilinogen. Urobilinogen can be oxidized in the intestine to stercobilin or absorbed by the small intestine. It is excreted in either urine or bile. Ster-cobilin is responsible for the brown color of the stool.
point that it cannot be solubilized, it starts to crystallize, forming gallstones. Eventually, calcium deposits form in the stones, increasing their opacity and making them easily detectable on X-ray images of the gallbladder.
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One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.