Sleep Changes the Breathing Pattern

During slow-wave sleep, breathing frequency and inspira-tory flow rate are reduced, and minute ventilation falls. These responses partially reflect the reduced physical activity that accompanies sleep. However, because of the small rise in Paco2 (about 3 mm Hg), there must also be a change in either the sensitivity or the set point of the carbon dioxide controller. In the deepest stage of slow-wave sleep (stage 4), breathing is slow, deep, and regular. But in stages 1 and 2, the depth of breathing sometimes varies periodically. The explanation is that during light sleep, withdrawal of the wakefulness stimulus varies over time in a periodic fashion. When the stimulus is removed, sleep is deepened and breathing is depressed; when returned, breathing is excited not only by the wakefulness stimulus but also by the carbon dioxide retained during the interval of sleep. This periodic pattern of breathing is known as Cheyne-Stokes breathing (Fig. 22.9).

In REM sleep, breathing frequency varies erratically while tidal volume varies little. The net effect on alveolar ventilation is probably a slight reduction, but this is achieved by averaging intervals of frank tachypnea (excessively rapid breathing) with intervals of apnea. Unlike slow-wave sleep, the variations during REM sleep do not reflect a changing wakefulness stimulus but instead represent responses to increased CNS activity of behavioral, rather than autonomic or metabolic, control systems.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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