DIRECTIONS: Each of the numbered items or incomplete statements in this section is followed by answers or completions of the statement. Select the ONE lettered answer or completion that is BEST in each case.
1. Which of the following would be an expected response by the coronary vasculature?
(A) Increased blood flow when the heart workload is increased
(B) Increased vascular resistance when the arterial blood pressure is increased
(C) Decreased blood flow when mean arterial pressure is reduced from 90 to 60 mm Hg by hemorrhage
(D) Decreased blood flow when blood oxygen content is reduced
(E) Increased vascular resistance during aerobic exercise 2. The intestinal blood flow during food digestion primarily increases because of
(A) Decreased sympathetic nervous system activity on intestinal arterioles
(B) Myogenic vasodilation associated with reduced arterial pressure after meals
(C) Tissue hypertonicity and the release of nitric oxide onto the arterioles
(E) Increased parasympathetic nervous system activity associated with food absorption
3. Incoming arterial and portal venous blood mix in the liver
(B) In large arterioles and portal venules
(C) In the liver acinus capillaries
(D) In the terminal hepatic venules
(E) In the outflow venules of the liver
4. As arterial pressure is raised and lowered during the course of a day, blood flow through the brain would be expected to
(A) Change in the same direction as the arterial blood pressure because of the limited autoregulatory ability of the cerebral vessels
(B) Change in a direction opposite the change in mean arterial pressure
(C) Remain about constant because cerebral vascular resistance changes in the same direction as arterial pressure
(D) Fluctuate widely, as both arterial pressure and brain neural activity status change
(E) Remain about constant because the cerebral vascular resistance changes in the opposite direction to the arterial pressure
5. Which of the following special circulations has the widest range of blood flows as part of its contributions to both the regulation of systemic vascular resistance and the modification of resistance to suit the organ's metabolic needs?
(C) Small intestine
(D) Skeletal muscle
6. Which of the following sequences is a possible anatomic path for a red blood cell passing through a fetus and back to the placenta? (Some intervening structures are not included.)
(A) Umbilical vein, right ventricle, ductus arteriosus, pulmonary artery
(D) Right ventricle, ductus arteriosus, descending aorta, umbilical artery
(E) Left ventricle, ductus arteriosus, pulmonary artery, left atrium
(A) Very little change occurs
(B) The vasculature primarily adapts to higher arterial pressure
(C) The vasculature primarily loses regulation at low arterial pressure
(D) The entire range of regulation shifts to higher pressures
(E) The entire range of regulation shifts to lower pressures
8. Why is the oxygen content of blood sent to the upper body during fetal life higher than that sent to the lower body?
(A) Blood oxygenated in the fetal lungs enters the left ventricle
(B) Oxygenated blood passes through the foramen ovale to the left ventricle
(C) The upper body is perfused by the ductus arteriosus blood flow
(D) The heart takes less of the oxygen from the blood in the left ventricle
(E) The right ventricular stroke volume is greater than that of the left ventricle
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