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Excretion Ammonia
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A cell model for renal synthesis and excretion of ammonia. Ammonium ions are formed from glutamine in the cell and are secreted into the tubular urine (top). H+ from H2CO 3 (bottom) is consumed when a-ketoglu-tarate is converted into glucose or CO2 and H2O. New HCO3~ is added to the peritubular capillary blood—1 mEq for each mEq of NH4+ excreted in the urine.

eral days. Enhanced renal ammonia synthesis and excretion is a lifesaving adaptation because it allows the kidneys to remove large H+ excesses and add more new HCO3~ to the blood. Also, the excreted NH4+ can substitute in the urine for Na+ and K+, diminishing the loss of these cations. With severe metabolic acidosis, ammonia excretion may increase almost 10-fold.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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