The activation of transcription by thyroid
"hormone. T4 is taken up by the cell and deiodinated to T3, which then binds to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). The activated TR heterodimerizes with a second transcription factor, 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR), and binds to the thyroid hormone response element (TRE). The binding of TR/RXR to the TRE displaces repressors of transcription and recruits additional coactivators. The final result is the activation of RNA polymerase II and the transcription of the target gene.
TR receptors, including effects on signal transduction pathways that alter cellular respiration, cell morphology, vascular tone, and ion homeostasis. The physiological relevance of these effects is currently being investigated.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.