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1. Ventilation is controlled by negative and positive feedback systems.

2. Normal arterial blood gases are maintained and the work of breathing is minimized despite changes in activity, the environment, and lung function.

3. The basic breathing rhythm is generated by neurons in the brainstem and can be modified by ventilatory reflexes.

4. The rate and depth of breathing are finely regulated by vagal nerve endings that are sensitive to lung stretch.

5. The autonomic nerves and vagal sensory nerves maintain local control of airway function.

6. Mechanical or chemical irritation of the airways and lungs induces coughing, bronchoconstriction, shallow breathing, and excess mucus production.

7. Arterial Pco2 is the most important factor in determining the ventilatory drive in resting individuals.

8. Central chemoreceptors detect changes only in arterial Pco2; peripheral chemoreceptors detect changes in arterial Po2, Pco2, and pH.

9. The hypoxia-induced stimulation of ventilation is not great until the arterial Po2 drops below 60 mm Hg.

10. Sleep is induced by the withdrawal of a wakefulness stimulus arising from the brainstem reticular formation and results in a general depression of breathing.

11. Chronic hypoxemia causes ventilatory acclimatization that increases breathing.

1. Ventilation is controlled by negative and positive feedback systems.

2. Normal arterial blood gases are maintained and the work of breathing is minimized despite changes in activity, the environment, and lung function.

3. The basic breathing rhythm is generated by neurons in the brainstem and can be modified by ventilatory reflexes.

4. The rate and depth of breathing are finely regulated by vagal nerve endings that are sensitive to lung stretch.

5. The autonomic nerves and vagal sensory nerves maintain local control of airway function.

6. Mechanical or chemical irritation of the airways and lungs induces coughing, bronchoconstriction, shallow breathing, and excess mucus production.

7. Arterial Pco2 is the most important factor in determining the ventilatory drive in resting individuals.

8. Central chemoreceptors detect changes only in arterial Pco2; peripheral chemoreceptors detect changes in arterial Po2, Pco2, and pH.

9. The hypoxia-induced stimulation of ventilation is not great until the arterial Po2 drops below 60 mm Hg.

10. Sleep is induced by the withdrawal of a wakefulness stimulus arising from the brainstem reticular formation and results in a general depression of breathing.

11. Chronic hypoxemia causes ventilatory acclimatization that increases breathing.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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