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Citric acid cycle

Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis and glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose uptake into target tissues, stimulates glycogen synthesis, and inhibits glycogenolysis. In addition it promotes glycolysis in its target tissues. Heavy arrows indicate processes stimulated by insulin,- light arrows indicate processes inhibited by insulin.

Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis and glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose uptake into target tissues, stimulates glycogen synthesis, and inhibits glycogenolysis. In addition it promotes glycolysis in its target tissues. Heavy arrows indicate processes stimulated by insulin,- light arrows indicate processes inhibited by insulin.

Insulin Degradation Liver

LIVER CELL, MUSCLE CELL, ADIPOCYTE

Effects of insulin on protein synthesis and "protein degradation. Insulin promotes the accumulation of protein by stimulating (heavy arrows) amino acid uptake and protein synthesis and by inhibiting (light arrows) protein degradation in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.

synthesis. Insulin also increases the amount of protein synthesis machinery in cells by promoting ribosome synthesis. Third, insulin inhibits protein degradation by reducing lyso-some activity and possibly other mechanisms as well.

Effects of Insulin on Protein Synthesis and Protein Degradation. Insulin promotes protein accumulation in its primary target tissues—liver, adipose tissue, and muscle—in three specific ways (Fig. 35.6). First, it stimulates amino acid uptake. Second, it increases the activity of several factors involved in protein synthesis. For example, it increases the activity of protein synthesis initiation factors, promoting the start of translation and increasing the efficiency of protein

Adipocyte

Adipocyte

Triglyceride Synthesis Adipocyte

Effects of insulin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Insulin promotes the accumulation of lipid (triglycerides) in adipocytes by stimulating the processes shown by the heavy arrows and inhibiting the processes shown by the light arrows. Similar stimulatory and inhibitory effects occur in liver cells.

Triglyceride

Effects of insulin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Insulin promotes the accumulation of lipid (triglycerides) in adipocytes by stimulating the processes shown by the heavy arrows and inhibiting the processes shown by the light arrows. Similar stimulatory and inhibitory effects occur in liver cells.

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