As previously mentioned, the increased heat production during exercise causes an increase in core temperature, which in turn elicits heat-loss responses. Core temperature continues to rise until heat loss has increased enough to match heat production, and core temperature and the heat-loss responses reach new steady-state levels. Since the heat-loss responses are proportional to the increase in core temperature, the increase in core temperature at steady state is proportional to the rate of heat production and, thus, to the metabolic rate.
A change in ambient temperature causes changes in the levels of sweating and skin blood flow necessary to maintain any given level of heat dissipation. However, the change in ambient temperature also elicits, via direct and reflex effects of the accompanying skin temperature changes, altered responses in the right direction. For any given rate of heat production, there is a certain range of environmental conditions within which an ambient temperature change elicits the necessary changes in heat-dissipating responses almost entirely through the effects of skin temperature changes, with virtually no effect on core temperature. (The limits of this range of environmental conditions depend on the rate of heat production and such individual factors as skin surface area and state of heat acclimatization.) Within this range, the core temperature reached during exercise is nearly independent of ambient temperature,- for this reason, it was once believed that the increase in core temperature during exercise is caused by an increase in the thermoregulatory set point, as during fever. As noted, however, the increase in core temperature with exercise is an example of a load error rather than an increase in set point.
This difference between fever and exercise is shown in Figure 29.11. Note that, although heat production may in crease substantially (through shivering), when core temperature is rising early during fever, it need not stay high to maintain the fever,- in fact, it returns nearly to prefebrile levels once the fever is established. During exercise, however, an increase in heat production not only causes the elevation in core temperature but is necessary to sustain it. Also, while core temperature is rising during fever, the rate of heat loss is, if anything, lower than it was before the fever began. During exercise, however, the heat-dissipating responses and the rate of heat loss start to increase early and continue increasing as core temperature rises.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.