Cardiac output (CO) is defined as the volume of blood ejected from the heart per unit time. The usual resting values for adults are 5 to 6 L/min, or approximately 8% of body weight per minute. Cardiac output divided by body surface area is called the cardiac index. When it is necessary to normalize the value to compare the cardiac output among individuals of different sizes, either cardiac index or cardiac output divided by body weight can be used. Cardiac output is the product of heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV), the volume of blood ejected with each beat:
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.