M

Squamous Cell Nose
Fig. 4.13a,b. Squamous cell carcinoma of left nasal cavity with extensive orbital infiltration. Invasion through the bony/periosteal hypointense interface of the fovea ethmoidalis (1) with minimal enhancement of the dural layer. Residual vertical lamella of the middle torbinate (2)

Although preoperative imaging may aid in surgical planning, in ambiguous cases of orbital invasion the intra-operative mapping of the orbital wall, with gross examination or frozen sections, is necessary.

Orbital invasion is considered a negative prognostic factor, even though some authors specify that decrease in survival may reflect the wider extension of lesions invading the orbit (Shah et al. 1997).

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